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Measures of socioeconomic status and self-reported glaucoma in the U.K. Biobank cohort

Measures of socioeconomic status and self-reported glaucoma in the U.K. Biobank cohort
Measures of socioeconomic status and self-reported glaucoma in the U.K. Biobank cohort
Purpose: To determine ocular, demographic, and socioeconomic associations with self-reported glaucoma in the UK Biobank.

Methods: Biobank is a study of UK residents aged 40–69 years registered with the National Health Service. Data were collected on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal biomechanics, and questionnaire from 112?690 participants. Relationships between ocular, demographic, and socioeconomic variables with reported diagnosis of glaucoma were examined.

Results: In all, 1916 (1.7%) people in UK Biobank reported glaucoma diagnosis. Participants reporting glaucoma were more likely to be older (mean 61.4 vs 56.7 years, P<0.001) and male (2.1% vs 1.4%, P=0.001). The rate of reported glaucoma was significantly higher in Black (3.28%, P<0.001) and Asian (2.14%, P=0.009) participants compared with White participants (1.62%, reference). Cases of reported glaucoma had a higher mean IOP (18?mm?Hg both eyes, P<0.001), lower corneal hysteresis (9.96 right eye, 9.89 left eye, P<0.001), and lower visual acuity (0.09 logMAR right eye, 0.08 logMAR left eye, P<0.001) compared with those without (16?mm?Hg both eyes, hysteresis 10.67 right eye, 10.63 left eye, 0.03 logMAR right eye, 0.02 logMAR left eye). The mean Townsend deprivation index was ?0.72 for those reporting glaucoma and ?0.95 for those without (P<0.001), indicating greater relative deprivation in those reporting glaucoma. Multivariable logistic regression showed that people in the lowest income group (<£18?000/year) were significantly more likely to report a diagnosis of glaucoma compared with any other income level (P<0.01). We observed increasing glaucoma risk across the full range of income categories, with highest risk among those of lowest income, and no evidence of a threshold effect.

Conclusions: In a large UK cohort, individuals reporting glaucoma had more adverse socioeconomic characteristics. Study of the mechanisms explaining these effects may aid our understanding of health inequality and will help inform public health interventions.
0950-222X
1360-1367
Shweikh, Y.
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Ko, F.
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Chan, M.P.Y.
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Patel, P.J.
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Muthy, Z.
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Khaw, P.T.
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Yip, J.
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Strouthidis, N.
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Foster, P.J.
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Goverdhan, S.
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Shweikh, Y.
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Ko, F.
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Chan, M.P.Y.
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Patel, P.J.
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Muthy, Z.
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Khaw, P.T.
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Yip, J.
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Strouthidis, N.
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Foster, P.J.
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Goverdhan, S.
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Shweikh, Y., Ko, F. and Chan, M.P.Y. et al. (2015) Measures of socioeconomic status and self-reported glaucoma in the U.K. Biobank cohort. Eye, 29 (10), 1360-1367. (doi:10.1038/eye.2015.157). (PMID:26315700)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Purpose: To determine ocular, demographic, and socioeconomic associations with self-reported glaucoma in the UK Biobank.

Methods: Biobank is a study of UK residents aged 40–69 years registered with the National Health Service. Data were collected on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal biomechanics, and questionnaire from 112?690 participants. Relationships between ocular, demographic, and socioeconomic variables with reported diagnosis of glaucoma were examined.

Results: In all, 1916 (1.7%) people in UK Biobank reported glaucoma diagnosis. Participants reporting glaucoma were more likely to be older (mean 61.4 vs 56.7 years, P<0.001) and male (2.1% vs 1.4%, P=0.001). The rate of reported glaucoma was significantly higher in Black (3.28%, P<0.001) and Asian (2.14%, P=0.009) participants compared with White participants (1.62%, reference). Cases of reported glaucoma had a higher mean IOP (18?mm?Hg both eyes, P<0.001), lower corneal hysteresis (9.96 right eye, 9.89 left eye, P<0.001), and lower visual acuity (0.09 logMAR right eye, 0.08 logMAR left eye, P<0.001) compared with those without (16?mm?Hg both eyes, hysteresis 10.67 right eye, 10.63 left eye, 0.03 logMAR right eye, 0.02 logMAR left eye). The mean Townsend deprivation index was ?0.72 for those reporting glaucoma and ?0.95 for those without (P<0.001), indicating greater relative deprivation in those reporting glaucoma. Multivariable logistic regression showed that people in the lowest income group (<£18?000/year) were significantly more likely to report a diagnosis of glaucoma compared with any other income level (P<0.01). We observed increasing glaucoma risk across the full range of income categories, with highest risk among those of lowest income, and no evidence of a threshold effect.

Conclusions: In a large UK cohort, individuals reporting glaucoma had more adverse socioeconomic characteristics. Study of the mechanisms explaining these effects may aid our understanding of health inequality and will help inform public health interventions.

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Accepted/In Press date: 20 July 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 15 August 2015
Published date: October 2015
Organisations: Clinical & Experimental Sciences

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Local EPrints ID: 388350
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/388350
ISSN: 0950-222X
PURE UUID: c1f9208b-b161-4709-8b7e-97b38e8e00ea

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Date deposited: 24 Feb 2016 13:46
Last modified: 16 Jul 2019 20:08

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Contributors

Author: Y. Shweikh
Author: F. Ko
Author: M.P.Y. Chan
Author: P.J. Patel
Author: Z. Muthy
Author: P.T. Khaw
Author: J. Yip
Author: N. Strouthidis
Author: P.J. Foster
Author: S. Goverdhan

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