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Does the frequency and intensity of physical activity in adolescence have an impact on bone? The Tromso Study, Fit Futures

Does the frequency and intensity of physical activity in adolescence have an impact on bone? The Tromso Study, Fit Futures
Does the frequency and intensity of physical activity in adolescence have an impact on bone? The Tromso Study, Fit Futures
BACKGROUND: Optimization of the genetic potential for bone accrual in early life may prevent future fractures. Possible modification factors include lifestyle factors such as nutrition and physical activity. Measured levels of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass content (BMC) are indicators of bone strength, and are correlated with fracture risk. This study explored the impact of self-reported physical activity frequencies and intensity on BMD and BMC in Norwegian adolescents.

METHODS: In 2010-2011 school students in two North-Norwegian municipalities were invited to a health survey, the Fit Future study. 508 girls and 530 boys aged 15-18 years attended. BMD and BMC were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity and other lifestyle-factors were reported by questionnaires and clinical interviews. Statistical analyses were performed sex stratified, using ANOVA for comparison of means and linear regression models adjusting for factors known to affect bone.

RESULTS: Approximately 2/3 of girls and boys reported themselves as physically active outside school hours. Active participants had a significantly higher BMD and BMC at all sites (p?<?0.001), except for BMC total body in girls, compared to inactive participants. In multiple linear regression analyses, increased physical activity measured as days a week, categorized into seldom, moderate and highly, was positively associated with BMD (g/cm(2)) at all sites in girls. Girls reporting themselves as highly active had BMD levels 0.093 g/cm(2), 0.090 g/cm(2) and 0.046 g/cm(2) higher (p?<?0.001) than their more seldom active peers at femoral neck, total hip and total body respectively. Corresponding values for boys were 0.125 g/cm(2), 0.133 g/cm(2) and 0.66 g/cm(2). BMC measures showed similar trends at femoral neck and total hip.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased level of physical activity is associated with higher BMD and BMC levels in adolescents. For both sexes high activity frequency seems to be essential, whilst boys reporting quite hard intensity has an additional impact. The differential effects of physical activity on bone strength in adolescence have clinical implications, especially in preventive strategies.
population-based study, physical activity, adolescents, bone mineral density, dxa
2052-1847
1-8
Christoffersen, T.
daa9250c-8c61-480c-9cbd-6be583ee685e
Winther, A.
04a0f191-c458-4b1c-b48e-8b5e17848235
Nilsen, O.A.
97d7bfdd-166c-4f63-83b3-5a74c84d4110
Ahmed, L.A.
834ccfd6-5a20-459d-9bbf-8a70ebfcfe74
Furberg, A.S.
19ee1356-90b8-4dd1-aeac-f601effd4849
Grimmes, G.
28a652fd-8796-476f-83ed-92a5170289cc
Dennison, E.
ee647287-edb4-4392-8361-e59fd505b1d1
Emaus, N.
30d14a5c-4b84-4151-a705-36f700ef6e96
Christoffersen, T.
daa9250c-8c61-480c-9cbd-6be583ee685e
Winther, A.
04a0f191-c458-4b1c-b48e-8b5e17848235
Nilsen, O.A.
97d7bfdd-166c-4f63-83b3-5a74c84d4110
Ahmed, L.A.
834ccfd6-5a20-459d-9bbf-8a70ebfcfe74
Furberg, A.S.
19ee1356-90b8-4dd1-aeac-f601effd4849
Grimmes, G.
28a652fd-8796-476f-83ed-92a5170289cc
Dennison, E.
ee647287-edb4-4392-8361-e59fd505b1d1
Emaus, N.
30d14a5c-4b84-4151-a705-36f700ef6e96

Christoffersen, T., Winther, A., Nilsen, O.A., Ahmed, L.A., Furberg, A.S., Grimmes, G., Dennison, E. and Emaus, N. (2015) Does the frequency and intensity of physical activity in adolescence have an impact on bone? The Tromso Study, Fit Futures. BMC Sports Science, Medical and Rehabilitation, 7 (26), 1-8. (doi:10.1186/s13102-015-0020-y). (PMID:26561526)

Record type: Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Optimization of the genetic potential for bone accrual in early life may prevent future fractures. Possible modification factors include lifestyle factors such as nutrition and physical activity. Measured levels of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass content (BMC) are indicators of bone strength, and are correlated with fracture risk. This study explored the impact of self-reported physical activity frequencies and intensity on BMD and BMC in Norwegian adolescents.

METHODS: In 2010-2011 school students in two North-Norwegian municipalities were invited to a health survey, the Fit Future study. 508 girls and 530 boys aged 15-18 years attended. BMD and BMC were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity and other lifestyle-factors were reported by questionnaires and clinical interviews. Statistical analyses were performed sex stratified, using ANOVA for comparison of means and linear regression models adjusting for factors known to affect bone.

RESULTS: Approximately 2/3 of girls and boys reported themselves as physically active outside school hours. Active participants had a significantly higher BMD and BMC at all sites (p?<?0.001), except for BMC total body in girls, compared to inactive participants. In multiple linear regression analyses, increased physical activity measured as days a week, categorized into seldom, moderate and highly, was positively associated with BMD (g/cm(2)) at all sites in girls. Girls reporting themselves as highly active had BMD levels 0.093 g/cm(2), 0.090 g/cm(2) and 0.046 g/cm(2) higher (p?<?0.001) than their more seldom active peers at femoral neck, total hip and total body respectively. Corresponding values for boys were 0.125 g/cm(2), 0.133 g/cm(2) and 0.66 g/cm(2). BMC measures showed similar trends at femoral neck and total hip.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased level of physical activity is associated with higher BMD and BMC levels in adolescents. For both sexes high activity frequency seems to be essential, whilst boys reporting quite hard intensity has an additional impact. The differential effects of physical activity on bone strength in adolescence have clinical implications, especially in preventive strategies.

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Accepted/In Press date: 3 November 2015
Published date: 10 November 2015
Keywords: population-based study, physical activity, adolescents, bone mineral density, dxa
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 388771
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/388771
ISSN: 2052-1847
PURE UUID: 6159f4ab-429e-4fd1-bb4c-768213bff8d3
ORCID for E. Dennison: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3048-4961

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Date deposited: 03 Mar 2016 09:03
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:46

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Contributors

Author: T. Christoffersen
Author: A. Winther
Author: O.A. Nilsen
Author: L.A. Ahmed
Author: A.S. Furberg
Author: G. Grimmes
Author: E. Dennison ORCID iD
Author: N. Emaus

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