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Effects of sachet water consumption on exposure to microbe-contaminated drinking water: household survey evidence from Ghana

Effects of sachet water consumption on exposure to microbe-contaminated drinking water: household survey evidence from Ghana
Effects of sachet water consumption on exposure to microbe-contaminated drinking water: household survey evidence from Ghana
There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012?2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p < 0.001), whilst packaged (sachet or bottled) water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001), compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.
driinking water, beverages, escherichia coli, west africa, survey methodology
1660-4601
1-17
Wright, James
94990ecf-f8dd-4649-84f2-b28bf272e464
Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli
b3bafe27-4542-4ece-a82a-4717a72df187
Wardrop, Nicola
8f3a8171-0727-4375-bc68-10e7d616e176
Johnston, Richard
79a1a026-0182-4843-961c-f729793f9b4f
Hill, Allan
5b17aa71-0c14-4fbf-8bc9-807c8294d4ae
Aryeetey, Genevieve
c1d29b15-bbf2-4eec-8906-c150bd810ebd
Adanu, Richard
f30addfb-ccd8-42c9-a638-18b32ed2dc62
Wright, James
94990ecf-f8dd-4649-84f2-b28bf272e464
Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli
b3bafe27-4542-4ece-a82a-4717a72df187
Wardrop, Nicola
8f3a8171-0727-4375-bc68-10e7d616e176
Johnston, Richard
79a1a026-0182-4843-961c-f729793f9b4f
Hill, Allan
5b17aa71-0c14-4fbf-8bc9-807c8294d4ae
Aryeetey, Genevieve
c1d29b15-bbf2-4eec-8906-c150bd810ebd
Adanu, Richard
f30addfb-ccd8-42c9-a638-18b32ed2dc62

Wright, James, Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli, Wardrop, Nicola, Johnston, Richard, Hill, Allan, Aryeetey, Genevieve and Adanu, Richard (2016) Effects of sachet water consumption on exposure to microbe-contaminated drinking water: household survey evidence from Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13 (3), 1-17. (doi:10.3390/ijerph13030303).

Record type: Article

Abstract

There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012?2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p < 0.001), whilst packaged (sachet or bottled) water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001), compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

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Accepted/In Press date: 29 February 2016
Published date: 9 March 2016
Keywords: driinking water, beverages, escherichia coli, west africa, survey methodology
Organisations: Population, Health & Wellbeing (PHeW)

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 389592
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/389592
ISSN: 1660-4601
PURE UUID: 106580f2-1d7f-42f0-82e5-85b28bea68f8
ORCID for James Wright: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8842-2181
ORCID for Allan Hill: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4418-0379

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 10 Mar 2016 12:04
Last modified: 03 Dec 2019 01:48

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Contributors

Author: James Wright ORCID iD
Author: Mawuli Dzodzomenyo
Author: Nicola Wardrop
Author: Richard Johnston
Author: Allan Hill ORCID iD
Author: Genevieve Aryeetey
Author: Richard Adanu

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