The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Simulation of heavy gas dispersion based on depth-averaged equations

Hankin, Robin K. S., Costa, Antonio and Chiodini, Giovanni (2006) Simulation of heavy gas dispersion based on depth-averaged equations At Cities on Volcanoes, 2006 Ecuador. 23 - 27 Jan 2006.

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)


Many volcanic and non-volcanic areas in Italy emit a huge amount of gas into the atmosphere. Non-volcanic sources in central Italy emit a huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) which has a molecular mass greater than that of air. Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, its concentration can reach high values resulting fatalities to humans or animals. Several episodes of this phenomenon have been recorded in central Italy and elsewhere. Although from a theoretical point of view, gas dispersion can be fully studied by solving the complete equations system for mass, momentum and energy transport, in actual practice, simplified models able to describe specific phases or aspects of the dispersion problem have to be used. In order to simulate dispersion of a heavy gas and to assess the consequent hazard, we used the established TWODEE model, which is based on a shallow layer approach. This technique uses depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behaviour of dense gas over complex topography represents a good compromise between the complexity of CFD models and the simpler integral models. We present preliminary results for a vented CO2 release in central Italy using the TWODEE model. We find that the dispersion pattern is strongly affected by the steep terrain, and the ambient windspeed.

Postscript - Accepted Manuscript
Download (32MB)

More information

Published date: 23 January 2006
Venue - Dates: Cities on Volcanoes, 2006 Ecuador, 2006-01-23 - 2006-01-27
Keywords: Heavy gas dispersion, numerical modelling, volcanic outgassing, carbon dioxide dispersion, atmospheric dispersion, complex terrain, TWODEE, Caldara di Manziana


Local EPrints ID: 39005
PURE UUID: 1a1296c0-2cba-4116-b954-6bde4648737d

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 16 Jun 2006
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 15:37

Export record


Author: Robin K. S. Hankin
Author: Antonio Costa
Author: Giovanni Chiodini

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.