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Resorcinol crystallization from the melt: a new ambient phase and new “riddles”

Resorcinol crystallization from the melt: a new ambient phase and new “riddles”
Resorcinol crystallization from the melt: a new ambient phase and new “riddles”
Structures of the alpha and beta phases of resorcinol, a major commodity chemical in the pharmaceutical, agrichemical, and polymer industries, were the first polymorphic pair of molecular crystals solved by X-ray analysis. It was recently stated that "no additional phases can be found under atmospheric conditions" (Druzbicki, K. et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2015, 119, 1681.). Herein, is described the growth and structure of a new ambient pressure phase, epsilon, through a combination of optical and X-ray crystallography evaluated by computational crystal structure prediction algorithms. alpha-Resorcinol has long been a model for mechanistic crystal growth studies from solution and the vapor because prisms extended along the polar axis grow much faster in one direction than in the opposite direction. Research has focused on identifying the absolute sense of the fast direction – the so-called ‘resorcinol riddle’ – with the aim of identifying how solvent controls crystal growth. Here, the growth velocity dissymmetry in the melt is analyzed for the ? phase. The epsilon phase only grows from the melt, concomitant with the beta phase, as polycrystalline, radially growing spherulites. If the radii are polar, the sense of the polar axis is an essential feature of the form. Here, this determination is made for spherulites of beta resorcinol (epsilon, point symmetry 222, does not have a polar axis) with additives that stereoselectively modify growth velocities. Both beta and epsilon have the additional feature that individual radial lamellae may adopt helicoidal morphologies. We correlate the appearance of twisting in beta and epsilon with the symmetry of twist-inducing additives.
0002-7863
1-40
Zhu, Qiang
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Shtukenberg, Alexander
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Carter, Damian
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Yu, Tang-Qing
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Yang, Jingxiang
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Chen, Ming
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Raiteri, Paolo
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Oganov, Artem
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Pokroy, Boaz
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Polishchuk, Iryna
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Bygrave, Peter
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Day, Graeme M.
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Rohl, Andrew
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Tuckerman, Mark
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Kahr, Bart
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Zhu, Qiang
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Shtukenberg, Alexander
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Carter, Damian
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Yu, Tang-Qing
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Yang, Jingxiang
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Chen, Ming
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Raiteri, Paolo
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Oganov, Artem
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Pokroy, Boaz
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Polishchuk, Iryna
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Bygrave, Peter
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Day, Graeme M.
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Rohl, Andrew
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Tuckerman, Mark
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Kahr, Bart
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Zhu, Qiang, Shtukenberg, Alexander, Carter, Damian, Yu, Tang-Qing, Yang, Jingxiang, Chen, Ming, Raiteri, Paolo, Oganov, Artem, Pokroy, Boaz, Polishchuk, Iryna, Bygrave, Peter, Day, Graeme M., Rohl, Andrew, Tuckerman, Mark and Kahr, Bart (2016) Resorcinol crystallization from the melt: a new ambient phase and new “riddles”. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1-40. (doi:10.1021/jacs.6b01120).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Structures of the alpha and beta phases of resorcinol, a major commodity chemical in the pharmaceutical, agrichemical, and polymer industries, were the first polymorphic pair of molecular crystals solved by X-ray analysis. It was recently stated that "no additional phases can be found under atmospheric conditions" (Druzbicki, K. et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2015, 119, 1681.). Herein, is described the growth and structure of a new ambient pressure phase, epsilon, through a combination of optical and X-ray crystallography evaluated by computational crystal structure prediction algorithms. alpha-Resorcinol has long been a model for mechanistic crystal growth studies from solution and the vapor because prisms extended along the polar axis grow much faster in one direction than in the opposite direction. Research has focused on identifying the absolute sense of the fast direction – the so-called ‘resorcinol riddle’ – with the aim of identifying how solvent controls crystal growth. Here, the growth velocity dissymmetry in the melt is analyzed for the ? phase. The epsilon phase only grows from the melt, concomitant with the beta phase, as polycrystalline, radially growing spherulites. If the radii are polar, the sense of the polar axis is an essential feature of the form. Here, this determination is made for spherulites of beta resorcinol (epsilon, point symmetry 222, does not have a polar axis) with additives that stereoselectively modify growth velocities. Both beta and epsilon have the additional feature that individual radial lamellae may adopt helicoidal morphologies. We correlate the appearance of twisting in beta and epsilon with the symmetry of twist-inducing additives.

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Accepted/In Press date: 17 March 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 17 March 2016
Organisations: Chemistry

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Local EPrints ID: 390106
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/390106
ISSN: 0002-7863
PURE UUID: 5103ae70-94c4-4e1b-9c2a-5f38194e6bfe
ORCID for Graeme M. Day: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8396-2771

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Date deposited: 18 Mar 2016 16:26
Last modified: 16 Oct 2021 04:01

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Contributors

Author: Qiang Zhu
Author: Alexander Shtukenberg
Author: Damian Carter
Author: Tang-Qing Yu
Author: Jingxiang Yang
Author: Ming Chen
Author: Paolo Raiteri
Author: Artem Oganov
Author: Boaz Pokroy
Author: Iryna Polishchuk
Author: Peter Bygrave
Author: Graeme M. Day ORCID iD
Author: Andrew Rohl
Author: Mark Tuckerman
Author: Bart Kahr

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