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Power budget analysis for waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

Power budget analysis for waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
Power budget analysis for waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
Waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (WERS) is emerging as an attractive alternative to plasmonic SERS approaches asit can provide more reproducible quantitative spectra on a robustchip without the need for nanostructured plasmonic materials. Realising portable WERS Raman systems with high sensitivity using low-cost laser diodes and compact spectrometers requires a detailed analysis of the power budget from laser to spectrometer chip. In this paper we describe theoretical optimisation of planar waveguidesfor maximum Raman excitation efficiency, demonstrate WERS for toluene on a silicon process compatible high index contrast tantalum pentoxidewaveguide, measure the absolute conversion efficiency from pump power to received power in an individual Raman line, and compare this with a power budget analysis of the complete system including collection with an optical fibre and interfacing to a compact spectrometer.Optimised 110nm thick Ta2O5waveguides on silica substrates excited at a wavelength of 637nm are shown experimentally to yield overallsystem power conversion efficiency of ~0.5×10-12from the pump power in the waveguide to the collected Raman power in the 1002 cm-1Raman line of toluene, in comparison with a calculated efficiency of 3.9×10-12.Collection efficiency is dictated by the numerical and physical apertures of the spectral detection system but may be improved by further engineering the spatial and angular Raman scattering distributions.
integrated optics, optical waveguides, waveguide raman spectroscopy, surface enhanced raman spectroscopy
0003-7028
1384-1391
Wang, Zilong
4f6f5b53-bbc7-4f1f-9803-fbec5b88dc29
Pearce, Stuart
1d0ee7c5-8f72-4783-a034-9b2f67de3531
Lin, Yung-Chun
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Zervas, Michael
1840a474-dd50-4a55-ab74-6f086aa3f701
Bartlett, Philip
d99446db-a59d-4f89-96eb-f64b5d8bb075
Wilkinson, James
73483cf3-d9f2-4688-9b09-1c84257884ca
Wang, Zilong
4f6f5b53-bbc7-4f1f-9803-fbec5b88dc29
Pearce, Stuart
1d0ee7c5-8f72-4783-a034-9b2f67de3531
Lin, Yung-Chun
99f01d11-bca3-4b64-8f01-2cefa915b7dc
Zervas, Michael
1840a474-dd50-4a55-ab74-6f086aa3f701
Bartlett, Philip
d99446db-a59d-4f89-96eb-f64b5d8bb075
Wilkinson, James
73483cf3-d9f2-4688-9b09-1c84257884ca

Wang, Zilong, Pearce, Stuart, Lin, Yung-Chun, Zervas, Michael, Bartlett, Philip and Wilkinson, James (2016) Power budget analysis for waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 70 (8), 1384-1391. (doi:10.1177/0003702816654042). (PMID:27301326)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (WERS) is emerging as an attractive alternative to plasmonic SERS approaches asit can provide more reproducible quantitative spectra on a robustchip without the need for nanostructured plasmonic materials. Realising portable WERS Raman systems with high sensitivity using low-cost laser diodes and compact spectrometers requires a detailed analysis of the power budget from laser to spectrometer chip. In this paper we describe theoretical optimisation of planar waveguidesfor maximum Raman excitation efficiency, demonstrate WERS for toluene on a silicon process compatible high index contrast tantalum pentoxidewaveguide, measure the absolute conversion efficiency from pump power to received power in an individual Raman line, and compare this with a power budget analysis of the complete system including collection with an optical fibre and interfacing to a compact spectrometer.Optimised 110nm thick Ta2O5waveguides on silica substrates excited at a wavelength of 637nm are shown experimentally to yield overallsystem power conversion efficiency of ~0.5×10-12from the pump power in the waveguide to the collected Raman power in the 1002 cm-1Raman line of toluene, in comparison with a calculated efficiency of 3.9×10-12.Collection efficiency is dictated by the numerical and physical apertures of the spectral detection system but may be improved by further engineering the spatial and angular Raman scattering distributions.

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Accepted/In Press date: 11 February 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 14 June 2016
Published date: August 2016
Keywords: integrated optics, optical waveguides, waveguide raman spectroscopy, surface enhanced raman spectroscopy
Organisations: Optoelectronics Research Centre

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 390799
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/390799
ISSN: 0003-7028
PURE UUID: 45bf1f15-1af3-4868-a074-64cb21360e54
ORCID for Michael Zervas: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0651-4059
ORCID for Philip Bartlett: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7300-6900
ORCID for James Wilkinson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4712-1697

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Date deposited: 06 Apr 2016 09:18
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:40

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Contributors

Author: Zilong Wang
Author: Stuart Pearce
Author: Yung-Chun Lin
Author: Michael Zervas ORCID iD
Author: Philip Bartlett ORCID iD
Author: James Wilkinson ORCID iD

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