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SN 2010jl: Optical to hard x-ray observations reveal an explosion embedded in a ten solar mass cocoon

SN 2010jl: Optical to hard x-ray observations reveal an explosion embedded in a ten solar mass cocoon
SN 2010jl: Optical to hard x-ray observations reveal an explosion embedded in a ten solar mass cocoon
Some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the interaction of the SN ejecta with a large amount of circumstellar matter (CSM). However, quantitative estimates of the CSM mass around such SNe are missing when the CSM material is optically thick. Specifically, current estimators are sensitive to uncertainties regarding the CSM density profile and the ejecta velocity. Here we outline a method to measure the mass of the optically thick CSM around such SNe. We present new visible-light and X-ray observations of SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf), including the first detection of an SN in the hard X-ray band using NuSTAR. The total radiated luminosity of SN 2010jl is extreme—at least 9 × 1050 erg. By modeling the visible-light data, we robustly show that the mass of the circumstellar material within ~1016 cm of the progenitor of SN 2010jl was in excess of 10 M ?. This mass was likely ejected tens of years prior to the SN explosion. Our modeling suggests that the shock velocity during shock breakout was ~6000 km s–1, decelerating to ~2600 km s–1 about 2 yr after maximum light. Furthermore, our late-time NuSTAR and XMM spectra of the SN presumably provide the first direct measurement of SN shock velocity 2 yr after the SN maximum light—measured to be in the range of 2000-4500 km s–1 if the ions and electrons are in equilibrium, and gsim 2000 km s–1 if they are not in equilibrium. This measurement is in agreement with the shock velocity predicted by our modeling of the visible-light data. Our observations also show that the average radial density distribution of the CSM roughly follows an r –2 law. A possible explanation for the gsim 10 M ? of CSM and the wind-like profile is that they are the result of multiple pulsational pair instability events prior to the SN explosion, separated from each other by years.
0004-637X
1-17
Ofek, Eran O.
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Zoglauer, Andreas
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Boggs, Steven E.
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Barriére, Nicolas M.
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Reynolds, Stephen P.
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Fryer, Chris L.
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Harrison, Fiona A.
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Cenko, S. Bradley
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Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
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Gal-Yam, Avishay
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Arcavi, Iair
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Bellm, Eric
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Bloom, Joshua S.
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Christensen, Finn
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Craig, William W.
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Even, Wesley
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Filippenko, Alexei V.
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Grefenstette, Brian
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Hailey, Charles J.
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Laher, Russ
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Madsen, Kristin
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Nakar, Ehud
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Nugent, Peter E.
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Stern, Daniel
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Sullivan, Mark
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Surace, Jason
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Zhang, William W.
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Ofek, Eran O.
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Zoglauer, Andreas
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Boggs, Steven E.
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Barriére, Nicolas M.
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Reynolds, Stephen P.
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Fryer, Chris L.
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Harrison, Fiona A.
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Cenko, S. Bradley
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Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
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Gal-Yam, Avishay
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Arcavi, Iair
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Bellm, Eric
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Bloom, Joshua S.
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Christensen, Finn
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Craig, William W.
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Even, Wesley
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Filippenko, Alexei V.
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Grefenstette, Brian
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Hailey, Charles J.
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Laher, Russ
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Madsen, Kristin
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Nakar, Ehud
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Nugent, Peter E.
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Stern, Daniel
2eae31a8-424f-4084-837e-ce12a4d00437
Sullivan, Mark
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Surace, Jason
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Zhang, William W.
839ff917-3ff6-40bd-882b-6626d924739d

Ofek, Eran O., Zoglauer, Andreas, Boggs, Steven E., Barriére, Nicolas M., Reynolds, Stephen P., Fryer, Chris L., Harrison, Fiona A., Cenko, S. Bradley, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Gal-Yam, Avishay, Arcavi, Iair, Bellm, Eric, Bloom, Joshua S., Christensen, Finn, Craig, William W., Even, Wesley, Filippenko, Alexei V., Grefenstette, Brian, Hailey, Charles J., Laher, Russ, Madsen, Kristin, Nakar, Ehud, Nugent, Peter E., Stern, Daniel, Sullivan, Mark, Surace, Jason and Zhang, William W. (2014) SN 2010jl: Optical to hard x-ray observations reveal an explosion embedded in a ten solar mass cocoon. The Astrophysical Journal, 781 (42), 1-17. (doi:10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/42).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the interaction of the SN ejecta with a large amount of circumstellar matter (CSM). However, quantitative estimates of the CSM mass around such SNe are missing when the CSM material is optically thick. Specifically, current estimators are sensitive to uncertainties regarding the CSM density profile and the ejecta velocity. Here we outline a method to measure the mass of the optically thick CSM around such SNe. We present new visible-light and X-ray observations of SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf), including the first detection of an SN in the hard X-ray band using NuSTAR. The total radiated luminosity of SN 2010jl is extreme—at least 9 × 1050 erg. By modeling the visible-light data, we robustly show that the mass of the circumstellar material within ~1016 cm of the progenitor of SN 2010jl was in excess of 10 M ?. This mass was likely ejected tens of years prior to the SN explosion. Our modeling suggests that the shock velocity during shock breakout was ~6000 km s–1, decelerating to ~2600 km s–1 about 2 yr after maximum light. Furthermore, our late-time NuSTAR and XMM spectra of the SN presumably provide the first direct measurement of SN shock velocity 2 yr after the SN maximum light—measured to be in the range of 2000-4500 km s–1 if the ions and electrons are in equilibrium, and gsim 2000 km s–1 if they are not in equilibrium. This measurement is in agreement with the shock velocity predicted by our modeling of the visible-light data. Our observations also show that the average radial density distribution of the CSM roughly follows an r –2 law. A possible explanation for the gsim 10 M ? of CSM and the wind-like profile is that they are the result of multiple pulsational pair instability events prior to the SN explosion, separated from each other by years.

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Accepted/In Press date: 25 November 2013
Published date: 6 January 2014
Organisations: Astronomy Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 394581
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/394581
ISSN: 0004-637X
PURE UUID: 5899e8c6-c22b-4afd-804b-3e2b82c55467
ORCID for Mark Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 20 May 2016 13:49
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 12:27

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Contributors

Author: Eran O. Ofek
Author: Andreas Zoglauer
Author: Steven E. Boggs
Author: Nicolas M. Barriére
Author: Stephen P. Reynolds
Author: Chris L. Fryer
Author: Fiona A. Harrison
Author: S. Bradley Cenko
Author: Shrinivas R. Kulkarni
Author: Avishay Gal-Yam
Author: Iair Arcavi
Author: Eric Bellm
Author: Joshua S. Bloom
Author: Finn Christensen
Author: William W. Craig
Author: Wesley Even
Author: Alexei V. Filippenko
Author: Brian Grefenstette
Author: Charles J. Hailey
Author: Russ Laher
Author: Kristin Madsen
Author: Ehud Nakar
Author: Peter E. Nugent
Author: Daniel Stern
Author: Mark Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: Jason Surace
Author: William W. Zhang

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