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PTF11iqb: cool supergiant mass-loss that bridges the gap between Type IIn and normal supernovae

PTF11iqb: cool supergiant mass-loss that bridges the gap between Type IIn and normal supernovae
PTF11iqb: cool supergiant mass-loss that bridges the gap between Type IIn and normal supernovae
The supernova (SN) PTF11iqb was initially classified as a Type IIn event caught very early after explosion. It showed narrow Wolf–Rayet (WR) spectral features on day 2 (as in SN 1998S and SN 2013cu), but the narrow emission weakened quickly and the spectrum morphed to resemble Types II-L and II-P. At late times, H? exhibited a complex, multipeaked profile reminiscent of SN 1998S. In terms of spectroscopic evolution, we find that PTF11iqb was a near twin of SN 1998S, although with somewhat weaker interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) at early times, and stronger interaction at late times. We interpret the spectral changes as caused by early interaction with asymmetric CSM that is quickly (by day 20) enveloped by the expanding SN ejecta photosphere, but then revealed again after the end of the plateau when the photosphere recedes. The light curve can be matched with a simple model for CSM interaction (with a mass-loss rate of roughly 10?4 M? yr?1) added to the light curve of a normal SN II-P. The underlying plateau requires a progenitor with an extended hydrogen envelope like a red supergiant at the moment of explosion, consistent with the slow wind speed (<80?km?s?1) inferred from narrow H? emission. The cool supergiant progenitor is significant because PTF11iqb showed WR features in its early spectrum – meaning that the presence of such WR features does not necessarily indicate a WR-like progenitor. Overall, PTF11iqb bridges SNe IIn with weaker pre-SN mass-loss seen in SNe II-L and II-P, implying a continuum between these types.
0035-8711
1876-1896
Smith, N.
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Mauerhan, J.C.
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Cenko, S.B.
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Kasliwal, M.M.
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Silverman, J.M.
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Filippenko, A.V.
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Gal-Yam, A.
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Clubb, K.I.
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Graham, M.L.
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Leonard, D.C.
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Horst, J.C.
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Williams, G.G.
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Andrews, J.E.
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Kulkarni, S.R.
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Nugent, P.
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Sullivan, M.
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Maguire, K.
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Xu, D.
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Ben-Ami, S.
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Smith, N.
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Mauerhan, J.C.
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Cenko, S.B.
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Kasliwal, M.M.
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Silverman, J.M.
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Filippenko, A.V.
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Gal-Yam, A.
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Clubb, K.I.
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Graham, M.L.
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Leonard, D.C.
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Horst, J.C.
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Williams, G.G.
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Andrews, J.E.
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Kulkarni, S.R.
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Nugent, P.
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Sullivan, M.
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Maguire, K.
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Xu, D.
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Ben-Ami, S.
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Smith, N., Mauerhan, J.C., Cenko, S.B., Kasliwal, M.M., Silverman, J.M., Filippenko, A.V., Gal-Yam, A., Clubb, K.I., Graham, M.L., Leonard, D.C., Horst, J.C., Williams, G.G., Andrews, J.E., Kulkarni, S.R., Nugent, P., Sullivan, M., Maguire, K., Xu, D. and Ben-Ami, S. (2015) PTF11iqb: cool supergiant mass-loss that bridges the gap between Type IIn and normal supernovae. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 449 (2), 1876-1896. (doi:10.1093/mnras/stv354).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The supernova (SN) PTF11iqb was initially classified as a Type IIn event caught very early after explosion. It showed narrow Wolf–Rayet (WR) spectral features on day 2 (as in SN 1998S and SN 2013cu), but the narrow emission weakened quickly and the spectrum morphed to resemble Types II-L and II-P. At late times, H? exhibited a complex, multipeaked profile reminiscent of SN 1998S. In terms of spectroscopic evolution, we find that PTF11iqb was a near twin of SN 1998S, although with somewhat weaker interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) at early times, and stronger interaction at late times. We interpret the spectral changes as caused by early interaction with asymmetric CSM that is quickly (by day 20) enveloped by the expanding SN ejecta photosphere, but then revealed again after the end of the plateau when the photosphere recedes. The light curve can be matched with a simple model for CSM interaction (with a mass-loss rate of roughly 10?4 M? yr?1) added to the light curve of a normal SN II-P. The underlying plateau requires a progenitor with an extended hydrogen envelope like a red supergiant at the moment of explosion, consistent with the slow wind speed (<80?km?s?1) inferred from narrow H? emission. The cool supergiant progenitor is significant because PTF11iqb showed WR features in its early spectrum – meaning that the presence of such WR features does not necessarily indicate a WR-like progenitor. Overall, PTF11iqb bridges SNe IIn with weaker pre-SN mass-loss seen in SNe II-L and II-P, implying a continuum between these types.

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Accepted/In Press date: 16 February 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 26 March 2015
Published date: 11 May 2015
Organisations: Astronomy Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 394585
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/394585
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: d07cb9e6-cb90-4b43-a536-4d65f0935bad
ORCID for M. Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 20 May 2016 14:03
Last modified: 07 Aug 2019 00:34

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Contributors

Author: N. Smith
Author: J.C. Mauerhan
Author: S.B. Cenko
Author: M.M. Kasliwal
Author: J.M. Silverman
Author: A.V. Filippenko
Author: A. Gal-Yam
Author: K.I. Clubb
Author: M.L. Graham
Author: D.C. Leonard
Author: J.C. Horst
Author: G.G. Williams
Author: J.E. Andrews
Author: S.R. Kulkarni
Author: P. Nugent
Author: M. Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: K. Maguire
Author: D. Xu
Author: S. Ben-Ami

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