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Slow-speed supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: two channels

Slow-speed supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: two channels
Slow-speed supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: two channels
Since the discovery of the unusual prototype SN 2002cx, the eponymous class of Type I (hydrogen-poor) supernovae with low ejecta speeds has grown to include approximately two dozen members identified from several heterogeneous surveys, in some cases ambiguously. Here we present the results of a systematic study of 1077 Type I supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, leading to nine new members of this peculiar class. Moreover, we find there are two distinct subclasses based on their spectroscopic, photometric, and host galaxy properties: "SN 2002cx-like" supernovae tend to be in later-type or more irregular hosts, have more varied and generally dimmer luminosities, have longer rise times, and lack a Ti II trough when compared to "SN 2002es-like" supernovae. None of our objects show helium, and we counter a previous claim of two such events. We also find that the occurrence rate of these transients relative to Type Ia supernovae is 5.6-3.8+22 % (90% confidence), lower compared to earlier estimates. Combining our objects with the literature sample, we propose that these subclasses have two distinct physical origins.
1538-4357
1-21
White, Christopher J.
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Kasliwal, Mansi M.
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Nugent, Peter E.
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Gal-Yam, Avishay
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Howell, D. Andrew
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Sullivan, Mark
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Goobar, Ariel
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Piro, Anthony L.
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Bloom, Joshua S.
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Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
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Laher, Russ R.
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Masci, Frank
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Ofek, Eran O.
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Surace, Jason
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Ben-Ami, Sagi
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Cao, Yi
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Cenko, S. Bradley
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Hook, Isobel M.
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Jönsson, Jakob
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Matheson, Thomas
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Sternberg, Assaf
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Quimby, Robert M.
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Yaron, Ofer
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White, Christopher J.
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Kasliwal, Mansi M.
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Nugent, Peter E.
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Gal-Yam, Avishay
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Howell, D. Andrew
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Sullivan, Mark
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Goobar, Ariel
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Piro, Anthony L.
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Bloom, Joshua S.
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Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
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Laher, Russ R.
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Masci, Frank
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Ofek, Eran O.
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Surace, Jason
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Ben-Ami, Sagi
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Cao, Yi
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Cenko, S. Bradley
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Hook, Isobel M.
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Jönsson, Jakob
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Matheson, Thomas
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Sternberg, Assaf
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Quimby, Robert M.
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Yaron, Ofer
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White, Christopher J., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nugent, Peter E., Gal-Yam, Avishay, Howell, D. Andrew, Sullivan, Mark, Goobar, Ariel, Piro, Anthony L., Bloom, Joshua S., Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Laher, Russ R., Masci, Frank, Ofek, Eran O., Surace, Jason, Ben-Ami, Sagi, Cao, Yi, Cenko, S. Bradley, Hook, Isobel M., Jönsson, Jakob, Matheson, Thomas, Sternberg, Assaf, Quimby, Robert M. and Yaron, Ofer (2015) Slow-speed supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: two channels. The Astrophysical Journal, 799 (52), 1-21. (doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/52).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Since the discovery of the unusual prototype SN 2002cx, the eponymous class of Type I (hydrogen-poor) supernovae with low ejecta speeds has grown to include approximately two dozen members identified from several heterogeneous surveys, in some cases ambiguously. Here we present the results of a systematic study of 1077 Type I supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, leading to nine new members of this peculiar class. Moreover, we find there are two distinct subclasses based on their spectroscopic, photometric, and host galaxy properties: "SN 2002cx-like" supernovae tend to be in later-type or more irregular hosts, have more varied and generally dimmer luminosities, have longer rise times, and lack a Ti II trough when compared to "SN 2002es-like" supernovae. None of our objects show helium, and we counter a previous claim of two such events. We also find that the occurrence rate of these transients relative to Type Ia supernovae is 5.6-3.8+22 % (90% confidence), lower compared to earlier estimates. Combining our objects with the literature sample, we propose that these subclasses have two distinct physical origins.

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Accepted/In Press date: 6 November 2014
Published date: 15 January 2015
Organisations: Astronomy Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 394588
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/394588
ISSN: 1538-4357
PURE UUID: 0af10a02-d896-4a46-ad58-b2ff5dfc8aef
ORCID for Mark Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 20 May 2016 14:26
Last modified: 31 Jul 2019 00:34

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Contributors

Author: Christopher J. White
Author: Mansi M. Kasliwal
Author: Peter E. Nugent
Author: Avishay Gal-Yam
Author: D. Andrew Howell
Author: Mark Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: Ariel Goobar
Author: Anthony L. Piro
Author: Joshua S. Bloom
Author: Shrinivas R. Kulkarni
Author: Russ R. Laher
Author: Frank Masci
Author: Eran O. Ofek
Author: Jason Surace
Author: Sagi Ben-Ami
Author: Yi Cao
Author: S. Bradley Cenko
Author: Isobel M. Hook
Author: Jakob Jönsson
Author: Thomas Matheson
Author: Assaf Sternberg
Author: Robert M. Quimby
Author: Ofer Yaron

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