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On the diversity of superluminous supernovae: ejected mass as the dominant factor

On the diversity of superluminous supernovae: ejected mass as the dominant factor
On the diversity of superluminous supernovae: ejected mass as the dominant factor
We assemble a sample of 24 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Parameterizing the light-curve shape through rise and decline time-scales shows that the two are highly correlated. Magnetar-powered models can reproduce the correlation, with the diversity in rise and decline rates driven by the diffusion time-scale. Circumstellar interaction models can exhibit a similar rise–decline relation, but only for a narrow range of densities, which may be problematic for these models. We find that SLSNe are approximately 3.5 mag brighter and have light curves three times broader than SNe Ibc, but that the intrinsic shapes are similar. There are a number of SLSNe with particularly broad light curves, possibly indicating two progenitor channels, but statistical tests do not cleanly separate two populations. The general spectral evolution is also presented. Velocities measured from Fe ii are similar for SLSNe and SNe Ibc, suggesting that diffusion time differences are dominated by mass or opacity. Flat velocity evolution in most SLSNe suggests a dense shell of ejecta. If opacities in SLSNe are similar to other SNe Ibc, the average ejected mass is higher by a factor 2–3. Assuming ? = 0.1?cm2?g?1, we estimate a mean (median) SLSN ejecta mass of 10 M? (6 M?), with a range of 3–30 M?. Doubling the assumed opacity brings the masses closer to normal SNe Ibc, but with a high-mass tail. The most probable mechanism for generating SLSNe seems to be the core collapse of a very massive hydrogen-poor star, forming a millisecond magnetar.
0035-8711
3869-3893
Nicholl, M.
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Smartt, S.J.
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Jerkstrand, A.
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Inserra, C.
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Sim, S.A.
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Chen, T.-W.
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Benetti, S.
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Fraser, M.
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Gal-Yam, A.
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Kankare, E.
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Maguire, K.
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Smith, K.
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Sullivan, M.
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Valenti, S.
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Bauer, F.E.
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Baumont, S.
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Bersier, D.
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Botticella, M.-T.
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Childress, M.
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Dennefeld, M.
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Della Valle, M.
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Elias-Rosa, N.
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Feindt, U.
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Galbany, L.
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Hadjiyska, E.
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Le Guillou, L.
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Leloudas, G.
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Mazzali, P.
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McKinnon, R.
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Polshaw, J.
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Rabinowitz, D.
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Rostami, S.
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Scalzo, R.
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Schulze, S.
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Sollerman, J.
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Taddia, F.
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Yuan, F.
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Nicholl, M.
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Smartt, S.J.
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Jerkstrand, A.
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Inserra, C.
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Sim, S.A.
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Benetti, S.
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Fraser, M.
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Gal-Yam, A.
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Kankare, E.
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Maguire, K.
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Smith, K.
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Sullivan, M.
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Valenti, S.
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Baltay, C.
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Baumont, S.
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Bersier, D.
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Childress, M.
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Dennefeld, M.
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Della Valle, M.
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Elias-Rosa, N.
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Feindt, U.
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Galbany, L.
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Hadjiyska, E.
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Le Guillou, L.
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Leloudas, G.
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Mazzali, P.
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McKinnon, R.
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Polshaw, J.
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Rabinowitz, D.
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Rostami, S.
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Scalzo, R.
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Schmidt, B.P.
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Schulze, S.
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Sollerman, J.
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Taddia, F.
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Yuan, F.
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Nicholl, M., Smartt, S.J., Jerkstrand, A., Inserra, C., Sim, S.A., Chen, T.-W., Benetti, S., Fraser, M., Gal-Yam, A., Kankare, E., Maguire, K., Smith, K., Sullivan, M., Valenti, S., Young, D.R., Baltay, C., Bauer, F.E., Baumont, S., Bersier, D., Botticella, M.-T., Childress, M., Dennefeld, M., Della Valle, M., Elias-Rosa, N., Feindt, U., Galbany, L., Hadjiyska, E., Le Guillou, L., Leloudas, G., Mazzali, P., McKinnon, R., Polshaw, J., Rabinowitz, D., Rostami, S., Scalzo, R., Schmidt, B.P., Schulze, S., Sollerman, J., Taddia, F. and Yuan, F. (2015) On the diversity of superluminous supernovae: ejected mass as the dominant factor. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 452 (4), 3869-3893. (doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1522).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We assemble a sample of 24 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Parameterizing the light-curve shape through rise and decline time-scales shows that the two are highly correlated. Magnetar-powered models can reproduce the correlation, with the diversity in rise and decline rates driven by the diffusion time-scale. Circumstellar interaction models can exhibit a similar rise–decline relation, but only for a narrow range of densities, which may be problematic for these models. We find that SLSNe are approximately 3.5 mag brighter and have light curves three times broader than SNe Ibc, but that the intrinsic shapes are similar. There are a number of SLSNe with particularly broad light curves, possibly indicating two progenitor channels, but statistical tests do not cleanly separate two populations. The general spectral evolution is also presented. Velocities measured from Fe ii are similar for SLSNe and SNe Ibc, suggesting that diffusion time differences are dominated by mass or opacity. Flat velocity evolution in most SLSNe suggests a dense shell of ejecta. If opacities in SLSNe are similar to other SNe Ibc, the average ejected mass is higher by a factor 2–3. Assuming ? = 0.1?cm2?g?1, we estimate a mean (median) SLSN ejecta mass of 10 M? (6 M?), with a range of 3–30 M?. Doubling the assumed opacity brings the masses closer to normal SNe Ibc, but with a high-mass tail. The most probable mechanism for generating SLSNe seems to be the core collapse of a very massive hydrogen-poor star, forming a millisecond magnetar.

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1503.03310v4.pdf - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 7 July 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 7 August 2015
Published date: 1 October 2015
Organisations: Astronomy Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 394589
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/394589
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: b9290b2e-35b4-4fd7-bb4a-28e8cfbc1485
ORCID for M. Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 20 May 2016 14:34
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:40

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Contributors

Author: M. Nicholl
Author: S.J. Smartt
Author: A. Jerkstrand
Author: C. Inserra
Author: S.A. Sim
Author: T.-W. Chen
Author: S. Benetti
Author: M. Fraser
Author: A. Gal-Yam
Author: E. Kankare
Author: K. Maguire
Author: K. Smith
Author: M. Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: S. Valenti
Author: D.R. Young
Author: C. Baltay
Author: F.E. Bauer
Author: S. Baumont
Author: D. Bersier
Author: M.-T. Botticella
Author: M. Childress
Author: M. Dennefeld
Author: M. Della Valle
Author: N. Elias-Rosa
Author: U. Feindt
Author: L. Galbany
Author: E. Hadjiyska
Author: L. Le Guillou
Author: G. Leloudas
Author: P. Mazzali
Author: R. McKinnon
Author: J. Polshaw
Author: D. Rabinowitz
Author: S. Rostami
Author: R. Scalzo
Author: B.P. Schmidt
Author: S. Schulze
Author: J. Sollerman
Author: F. Taddia
Author: F. Yuan

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