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A multi-wavelength investigation of the radio-loud supernova PTF11qcj and its circumstellar environment

A multi-wavelength investigation of the radio-loud supernova PTF11qcj and its circumstellar environment
A multi-wavelength investigation of the radio-loud supernova PTF11qcj and its circumstellar environment
We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic (from radio to X-ray) follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a supernova (SN) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is radio-loud: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated SN 1998bw (L 5 GHz ? 1029 erg s–1 Hz–1). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra Observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the SN interaction with circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ~10–4 M ? yr–1 × (vw /1000 km s–1), and a velocity of ?0.3-0.5 c for the fastest moving ejecta (at ?10 days after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of SN ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar wind, and do not account for possible inhomogeneities in the medium and asphericity of the explosion. The radio data show deviations from such a simple model, as well as a late-time re-brightening. The X-ray flux from PTF11qcj is compatible with the high-frequency extrapolation of the radio synchrotron emission (within the large uncertainties). A light echo from pre-existing dust is in agreement with our infrared data. Our pre-explosion data from the PTF suggest that a precursor eruption of absolute magnitude Mr ? –13 mag may have occurred ?2.5 yr prior to the SN explosion. Overall, PTF11qcj fits the expectations from the explosion of a Wolf-Rayet star. Precursor eruptions may be a feature characterizing the final pre-explosion evolution of such stars.
0004-637X
1-18
Corsi, A.
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Ofek, E.O.
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Gal-Yam, A.
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Frail, D.A.
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Kulkarni, S.R.
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Fox, D.B.
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Kasliwal, M.M.
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Sullivan, M.
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Horesh, A.
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Carpenter, J.
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Maguire, K.
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Arcavi, I.
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Cenko, S.B.
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Cao, Y.
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Mooley, K.
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Pan, Y.-C.
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Sesar, B.
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Sternberg, A.
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Xu, D.
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Bersier, D.
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James, P.
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Bloom, J.S.
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Nugent, P.E.
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Corsi, A.
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Ofek, E.O.
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Gal-Yam, A.
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Frail, D.A.
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Kulkarni, S.R.
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Fox, D.B.
bf023386-675c-42d5-a80d-78e473fe101d
Kasliwal, M.M.
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Sullivan, M.
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Horesh, A.
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Carpenter, J.
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Maguire, K.
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Arcavi, I.
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Cenko, S.B.
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Cao, Y.
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Mooley, K.
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Pan, Y.-C.
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Sesar, B.
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Sternberg, A.
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Xu, D.
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Bersier, D.
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James, P.
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Bloom, J.S.
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Nugent, P.E.
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Corsi, A., Ofek, E.O., Gal-Yam, A., Frail, D.A., Kulkarni, S.R., Fox, D.B., Kasliwal, M.M., Sullivan, M., Horesh, A., Carpenter, J., Maguire, K., Arcavi, I., Cenko, S.B., Cao, Y., Mooley, K., Pan, Y.-C., Sesar, B., Sternberg, A., Xu, D., Bersier, D., James, P., Bloom, J.S. and Nugent, P.E. (2014) A multi-wavelength investigation of the radio-loud supernova PTF11qcj and its circumstellar environment. The Astrophysical Journal, 782 (42), 1-18. (doi:10.1088/0004-637X/782/1/42).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic (from radio to X-ray) follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a supernova (SN) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is radio-loud: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated SN 1998bw (L 5 GHz ? 1029 erg s–1 Hz–1). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra Observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the SN interaction with circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ~10–4 M ? yr–1 × (vw /1000 km s–1), and a velocity of ?0.3-0.5 c for the fastest moving ejecta (at ?10 days after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of SN ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar wind, and do not account for possible inhomogeneities in the medium and asphericity of the explosion. The radio data show deviations from such a simple model, as well as a late-time re-brightening. The X-ray flux from PTF11qcj is compatible with the high-frequency extrapolation of the radio synchrotron emission (within the large uncertainties). A light echo from pre-existing dust is in agreement with our infrared data. Our pre-explosion data from the PTF suggest that a precursor eruption of absolute magnitude Mr ? –13 mag may have occurred ?2.5 yr prior to the SN explosion. Overall, PTF11qcj fits the expectations from the explosion of a Wolf-Rayet star. Precursor eruptions may be a feature characterizing the final pre-explosion evolution of such stars.

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Accepted/In Press date: 12 December 2013
Published date: 24 January 2014
Organisations: Astronomy Group

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Local EPrints ID: 394593
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/394593
ISSN: 0004-637X
PURE UUID: 9680aa14-68fb-42a4-acd9-f109344f7726
ORCID for M. Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 20 May 2016 15:20
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 12:27

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Contributors

Author: A. Corsi
Author: E.O. Ofek
Author: A. Gal-Yam
Author: D.A. Frail
Author: S.R. Kulkarni
Author: D.B. Fox
Author: M.M. Kasliwal
Author: M. Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: A. Horesh
Author: J. Carpenter
Author: K. Maguire
Author: I. Arcavi
Author: S.B. Cenko
Author: Y. Cao
Author: K. Mooley
Author: Y.-C. Pan
Author: B. Sesar
Author: A. Sternberg
Author: D. Xu
Author: D. Bersier
Author: P. James
Author: J.S. Bloom
Author: P.E. Nugent

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