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The rise-time of Type II supernovae

The rise-time of Type II supernovae
The rise-time of Type II supernovae
We investigate the early-time light curves of a large sample of 223 Type II supernovae (SNe II) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Having a cadence of a few days and sufficient non-detections prior to explosion, we constrain rise-times, i.e. the durations from estimated first to maximum light, as a function of effective wavelength. At rest-frame g? band (?eff = 4722 Å), we find a distribution of fast rise-times with median of (7.5 ± 0.3) d. Comparing these durations with analytical shock models of Rabinak & Waxman and Nakar & Sari, and hydrodynamical models of Tominaga et al., which are mostly sensitive to progenitor radius at these epochs, we find a median characteristic radius of less than 400 solar radii. The inferred radii are on average much smaller than the radii obtained for observed red supergiants (RSG). Investigating the post-maximum slopes as a function of effective wavelength in the light of theoretical models, we find that massive hydrogen envelopes are still needed to explain the plateaus of SNe II. We therefore argue that the SN II rise-times we observe are either (a) the shock cooling resulting from the core collapse of RSG with small and dense envelopes, or (b) the delayed and prolonged shock breakout of the collapse of an RSG with an extended atmosphere or embedded within pre-SN circumstellar material.
0035-8711
2212-2229
Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.
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Tominaga, N.
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Molina, J.
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Galbany, L.
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Bufano, F.
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Anderson, J.P.
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Gutierrez, C.
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Forster, F.
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Pignata, G.
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Bersten, M.
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Howell, D.A.
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Sullivan, M.
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Carlberg, R.
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de Jaeger, T.
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Hamuy, M.
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Baklanov, P.V.
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Blinnikov, S.I.
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Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.
57a49592-3b1f-4492-bc30-0ef0156023ec
Tominaga, N.
ff69a4e6-7f54-4d80-8366-096743818a8c
Molina, J.
ff666415-7f22-4a7c-adfe-64fb2073db5f
Galbany, L.
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Bufano, F.
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Anderson, J.P.
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Gutierrez, C.
f66ec260-76db-4284-b81a-7de3a3bea3c8
Forster, F.
c0d37dd1-287e-4061-9889-98285c202067
Pignata, G.
9bd75293-6f05-4f62-b533-62d8fc83a4ad
Bersten, M.
390ca848-c9a7-402b-80a9-06508d4431fb
Howell, D.A.
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Sullivan, M.
2f31f9fa-8e79-4b35-98e2-0cb38f503850
Carlberg, R.
608de476-3e28-4cb4-82c2-93514b9de967
de Jaeger, T.
e45519a3-dfd2-4cbc-8a82-afd29f84d357
Hamuy, M.
6a1705b8-26ef-4554-abd7-376c3bc00555
Baklanov, P.V.
42c14453-c75a-4837-8999-854adf02fbc7
Blinnikov, S.I.
632ba7ed-7788-4a07-a1f7-d889b4e033d4

Gonzalez-Gaitan, S., Tominaga, N., Molina, J., Galbany, L., Bufano, F., Anderson, J.P., Gutierrez, C., Forster, F., Pignata, G., Bersten, M., Howell, D.A., Sullivan, M., Carlberg, R., de Jaeger, T., Hamuy, M., Baklanov, P.V. and Blinnikov, S.I. (2015) The rise-time of Type II supernovae. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 451 (2), 2212-2229. (doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1097).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We investigate the early-time light curves of a large sample of 223 Type II supernovae (SNe II) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Having a cadence of a few days and sufficient non-detections prior to explosion, we constrain rise-times, i.e. the durations from estimated first to maximum light, as a function of effective wavelength. At rest-frame g? band (?eff = 4722 Å), we find a distribution of fast rise-times with median of (7.5 ± 0.3) d. Comparing these durations with analytical shock models of Rabinak & Waxman and Nakar & Sari, and hydrodynamical models of Tominaga et al., which are mostly sensitive to progenitor radius at these epochs, we find a median characteristic radius of less than 400 solar radii. The inferred radii are on average much smaller than the radii obtained for observed red supergiants (RSG). Investigating the post-maximum slopes as a function of effective wavelength in the light of theoretical models, we find that massive hydrogen envelopes are still needed to explain the plateaus of SNe II. We therefore argue that the SN II rise-times we observe are either (a) the shock cooling resulting from the core collapse of RSG with small and dense envelopes, or (b) the delayed and prolonged shock breakout of the collapse of an RSG with an extended atmosphere or embedded within pre-SN circumstellar material.

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Accepted/In Press date: 11 May 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 11 June 2015
Published date: August 2015
Organisations: Astronomy Group

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Local EPrints ID: 394594
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/394594
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: 2fa35d5f-cb88-40af-835c-b60df1281119
ORCID for M. Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 20 May 2016 15:25
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 12:27

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Contributors

Author: S. Gonzalez-Gaitan
Author: N. Tominaga
Author: J. Molina
Author: L. Galbany
Author: F. Bufano
Author: J.P. Anderson
Author: C. Gutierrez
Author: F. Forster
Author: G. Pignata
Author: M. Bersten
Author: D.A. Howell
Author: M. Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: R. Carlberg
Author: T. de Jaeger
Author: M. Hamuy
Author: P.V. Baklanov
Author: S.I. Blinnikov

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