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Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity

Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity
Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity
Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ~104 km s–1). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events.
0004-637X
1-6
Ofek, Eran O.
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Arcavi, Iair
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Tal, David
bd1ce169-2db4-46e5-9972-d2cb85adfab5
Sullivan, Mark
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Gal-Yam, Avishay
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Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
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Nugent, Peter E.
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Ben-Ami, Sagi
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Bersier, David
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Cao, Yi
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Cenko, S. Bradley
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De Cia, Annalisa
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Filippenko, Alexei V.
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Fransson, Claes
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Kasliwal, Mansi M.
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Laher, Russ
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Surace, Jason
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Quimby, Robert
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Yaron, Ofer
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Ofek, Eran O.
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Arcavi, Iair
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Tal, David
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Sullivan, Mark
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Gal-Yam, Avishay
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Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
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Nugent, Peter E.
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Ben-Ami, Sagi
653abcad-702d-4f59-9ba7-01864b5765e5
Bersier, David
51ce539f-3515-4fc3-bbbd-52c5dcb290cf
Cao, Yi
2595c336-1747-49de-ac6f-d717828ff6e9
Cenko, S. Bradley
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De Cia, Annalisa
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Filippenko, Alexei V.
132ab07b-9e82-48e6-af6e-46cd8e74a43d
Fransson, Claes
5a7776d4-07c0-4f67-986b-8dd1916be12d
Kasliwal, Mansi M.
b6c5b585-867a-49a8-81cd-aa992b48d078
Laher, Russ
6a019647-8cf8-4d40-a541-f2bcdcea4cb1
Surace, Jason
5ed4d52a-2b90-4b0f-ba42-13045011a993
Quimby, Robert
fb5a6f86-b634-4cd3-852e-603242ff4268
Yaron, Ofer
bba3cfb6-03cd-4709-95db-a8a230f07d6a

Ofek, Eran O., Arcavi, Iair, Tal, David, Sullivan, Mark, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Nugent, Peter E., Ben-Ami, Sagi, Bersier, David, Cao, Yi, Cenko, S. Bradley, De Cia, Annalisa, Filippenko, Alexei V., Fransson, Claes, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Laher, Russ, Surace, Jason, Quimby, Robert and Yaron, Ofer (2014) Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity. The Astrophysical Journal, 788 (154), 1-6. (doi:10.1088/0004-637X/788/2/154).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ~104 km s–1). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events.

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Accepted/In Press date: 15 April 2014
Published date: 3 June 2014
Organisations: Astronomy Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 394598
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/394598
ISSN: 0004-637X
PURE UUID: a127446b-dc87-44b3-9a9b-5e726bc15aca
ORCID for Mark Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 20 May 2016 15:44
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 12:27

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Contributors

Author: Eran O. Ofek
Author: Iair Arcavi
Author: David Tal
Author: Mark Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: Avishay Gal-Yam
Author: Shrinivas R. Kulkarni
Author: Peter E. Nugent
Author: Sagi Ben-Ami
Author: David Bersier
Author: Yi Cao
Author: S. Bradley Cenko
Author: Annalisa De Cia
Author: Alexei V. Filippenko
Author: Claes Fransson
Author: Mansi M. Kasliwal
Author: Russ Laher
Author: Jason Surace
Author: Robert Quimby
Author: Ofer Yaron

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