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DES14X3taz: a type I superluminous supernova showing a luminous, rapidly cooling initial pre-peak bump

DES14X3taz: a type I superluminous supernova showing a luminous, rapidly cooling initial pre-peak bump
DES14X3taz: a type I superluminous supernova showing a luminous, rapidly cooling initial pre-peak bump
We present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae. Spectra obtained using Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS show DES14X3taz is an SLSN-I at z = 0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000 to 8000 K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical 56Ni-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the entire light curve of DES14X3taz. Models involving the shock-cooling of extended circumstellar material at a distance of sime400 ${\text{}}{R}_{\odot }$ are preferred over the cooling of shock-heated surface layers of a stellar envelope. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation.
1538-4357
1-7
Smith, M.
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Sullivan, M.
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D'andrea, C.B.
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Castander, F.J.
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Casas, R.
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Papadopoulos, A.
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Smith, M., Sullivan, M., D'andrea, C.B., Castander, F.J., Casas, R., Prajs, S., Papadopoulos, A., Nichol, R.C., Karpenka, N.V., Bernard, S.R., Brown, P., Cartier, R., Cooke, J., Curtin, C., Davis, T.M., Finley, D.A., Foley, R.J., Gal-Yam, A., Goldstein, D.A., González-Gaitán, S., Gupta, R.R., Howell, D.A., Inserra, C., Kessler, R., Lidman, C., Marriner, J., Nugent, P., Pritchard, T.A., Sako, M., Smartt, S., Smith, R.C., Spinka, H., Thomas, R.C., Wolf, R.C., Zenteno, A., Abbott, T.M.C., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C.E., Costa, L.N. da, Desai, S., Diehl, H.T., Doel, P., Estrada, J., Evrard, A.E., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., Gerdes, D.W., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R.A., James, D.J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Li, T.S., Marshall, J.L., Martini, P., Miller, C.J., Miquel, R., Nord, B., Ogando, R., Plazas, A.A., Reil, K., Romer, A.K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E.S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M.E.C., Tarle, G., Walker, A.R. and Wester, W. (2016) DES14X3taz: a type I superluminous supernova showing a luminous, rapidly cooling initial pre-peak bump. The Astrophysical Journal, 818 (L8), 1-7. (doi:10.3847/2041-8205/818/1/L8).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae. Spectra obtained using Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS show DES14X3taz is an SLSN-I at z = 0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000 to 8000 K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical 56Ni-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the entire light curve of DES14X3taz. Models involving the shock-cooling of extended circumstellar material at a distance of sime400 ${\text{}}{R}_{\odot }$ are preferred over the cooling of shock-heated surface layers of a stellar envelope. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation.

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Accepted/In Press date: 15 December 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 3 February 2016
Published date: 10 February 2016
Organisations: Astronomy Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 394630
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/394630
ISSN: 1538-4357
PURE UUID: c625da9f-59fd-41df-9226-aefddfa72a88
ORCID for M. Smith: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3321-1432
ORCID for M. Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 23 May 2016 08:17
Last modified: 15 Jul 2019 20:29

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Contributors

Author: M. Smith ORCID iD
Author: M. Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: C.B. D'andrea
Author: F.J. Castander
Author: R. Casas
Author: S. Prajs
Author: A. Papadopoulos
Author: R.C. Nichol
Author: N.V. Karpenka
Author: S.R. Bernard
Author: P. Brown
Author: R. Cartier
Author: J. Cooke
Author: C. Curtin
Author: T.M. Davis
Author: D.A. Finley
Author: R.J. Foley
Author: A. Gal-Yam
Author: D.A. Goldstein
Author: S. González-Gaitán
Author: R.R. Gupta
Author: D.A. Howell
Author: C. Inserra
Author: R. Kessler
Author: C. Lidman
Author: J. Marriner
Author: P. Nugent
Author: T.A. Pritchard
Author: M. Sako
Author: S. Smartt
Author: R.C. Smith
Author: H. Spinka
Author: R.C. Thomas
Author: R.C. Wolf
Author: A. Zenteno
Author: T.M.C. Abbott
Author: A. Benoit-Lévy
Author: E. Bertin
Author: D. Brooks
Author: E. Buckley-Geer
Author: A. Carnero Rosell
Author: M. Carrasco Kind
Author: J. Carretero
Author: M. Crocce
Author: C.E. Cunha
Author: L.N. da Costa
Author: S. Desai
Author: H.T. Diehl
Author: P. Doel
Author: J. Estrada
Author: A.E. Evrard
Author: B. Flaugher
Author: P. Fosalba
Author: J. Frieman
Author: D.W. Gerdes
Author: D. Gruen
Author: R.A. Gruendl
Author: D.J. James
Author: K. Kuehn
Author: N. Kuropatkin
Author: O. Lahav
Author: T.S. Li
Author: J.L. Marshall
Author: P. Martini
Author: C.J. Miller
Author: R. Miquel
Author: B. Nord
Author: R. Ogando
Author: A.A. Plazas
Author: K. Reil
Author: A.K. Romer
Author: A. Roodman
Author: E.S. Rykoff
Author: E. Sanchez
Author: V. Scarpine
Author: M. Schubnell
Author: I. Sevilla-Noarbe
Author: M. Soares-Santos
Author: F. Sobreira
Author: E. Suchyta
Author: M.E.C. Swanson
Author: G. Tarle
Author: A.R. Walker
Author: W. Wester

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