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Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force

Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force
Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force
Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases (M). However, it is now recognized that clinical outcome can significantly vary among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information, and does not predict response to therapy. Recent literature has alluded to the importance of the host immune system in controlling tumor progression. Thus, evidence supports the notion to include immunological biomarkers, implemented as a tool for the prediction of prognosis and response to therapy. Accumulating data, collected from large cohorts of human cancers, has demonstrated the impact of immune-classification, which has a prognostic value that may add to the significance of the AJCC/UICC TNM-classification. It is therefore imperative to begin to incorporate the 'Immunoscore' into traditional classification, thus providing an essential prognostic and potentially predictive tool. Introduction of this parameter as a biomarker to classify cancers, as part of routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment of tumors, will facilitate clinical decision-making including rational stratification of patient treatment. Equally, the inherent complexity of quantitative immunohistochemistry, in conjunction with protocol variation across laboratories, analysis of different immune cell types, inconsistent region selection criteria, and variable ways to quantify immune infiltration, all underline the urgent requirement to reach assay harmonization. In an effort to promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings, an international task force was initiated. This review represents a follow-up of the announcement of this initiative, and of the J Transl Med. editorial from January 2012. Immunophenotyping of tumors may provide crucial novel prognostic information. The results of this international validation may result in the implementation of the Immunoscore as a new component for the classification of cancer, designated TNM-I (TNM-Immune).
1479-5876
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Galon, Jérôme, Pagès, Franck, Marincola, Francesco M., Angell, Helen K., Thurin, Magdalena, Lugli, Alessandro, Zlobec, Inti, Berger, Anne, Bifulco, Carlo, Botti, Gerardo, Tatangelo, Fabiana, Britten, Cedrik M., Kreiter, Sebastian, Chouchane, Lotfi, Delrio, Paolo, Arndt, Hartmann, Asslaber, Martin, Maio, Michele, Masucci, Giuseppe V., Mihm, Martin, Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando, Allison, James P., Gnjatic, Sacha, Hakansson, Leif, Huber, Christoph, Singh-Jasuja, Harpreet, Ottensmeier, Christian, Zwierzina, Heinz, Laghi, Luigi, Grizzi, Fabio, Ohashi, Pamela S., Shaw, Patricia A., Clarke, Blaise A., Wouters, Bradly G., Kawakami, Yutaka, Hazama, Shoichi, Okuno, Kiyotaka, Wang, Ena, O'Donnell-Tormey, Jill, Lagorce, Christine, Pawelec, Graham, Nishimura, Michael I., Hawkins, Robert, Lapointe, Réjean, Lundqvist, Andreas, Khleif, Samir N., Ogino, Shuji, Gibbs, Peter, Waring, Paul, Sato, Noriyuki, Torigoe, Toshihiko, Itoh, Kyogo, Patel, Prabhu S., Shukla, Shilin N., Palmqvist, Richard, Nagtegaal, Iris D., Wang, Yili, D'Arrigo, Corrado, Kopetz, Scott, Sinicrope, Frank A., Trinchieri, Giorgio, Gajewski, Thomas F., Ascierto, Paolo A. and Fox, Bernard A. (2012) Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force. Journal of Translational Medicine, 10 (205), 1-10. (doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-205). (PMID:23034130)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases (M). However, it is now recognized that clinical outcome can significantly vary among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information, and does not predict response to therapy. Recent literature has alluded to the importance of the host immune system in controlling tumor progression. Thus, evidence supports the notion to include immunological biomarkers, implemented as a tool for the prediction of prognosis and response to therapy. Accumulating data, collected from large cohorts of human cancers, has demonstrated the impact of immune-classification, which has a prognostic value that may add to the significance of the AJCC/UICC TNM-classification. It is therefore imperative to begin to incorporate the 'Immunoscore' into traditional classification, thus providing an essential prognostic and potentially predictive tool. Introduction of this parameter as a biomarker to classify cancers, as part of routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment of tumors, will facilitate clinical decision-making including rational stratification of patient treatment. Equally, the inherent complexity of quantitative immunohistochemistry, in conjunction with protocol variation across laboratories, analysis of different immune cell types, inconsistent region selection criteria, and variable ways to quantify immune infiltration, all underline the urgent requirement to reach assay harmonization. In an effort to promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings, an international task force was initiated. This review represents a follow-up of the announcement of this initiative, and of the J Transl Med. editorial from January 2012. Immunophenotyping of tumors may provide crucial novel prognostic information. The results of this international validation may result in the implementation of the Immunoscore as a new component for the classification of cancer, designated TNM-I (TNM-Immune).

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Accepted/In Press date: 19 September 2012
Published date: 3 October 2012
Organisations: Cancer Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 396353
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/396353
ISSN: 1479-5876
PURE UUID: bad60554-07d0-4623-81be-75c28fe61286

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Date deposited: 08 Jun 2016 15:41
Last modified: 16 Sep 2019 18:10

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Contributors

Author: Jérôme Galon
Author: Franck Pagès
Author: Francesco M. Marincola
Author: Helen K. Angell
Author: Magdalena Thurin
Author: Alessandro Lugli
Author: Inti Zlobec
Author: Anne Berger
Author: Carlo Bifulco
Author: Gerardo Botti
Author: Fabiana Tatangelo
Author: Cedrik M. Britten
Author: Sebastian Kreiter
Author: Lotfi Chouchane
Author: Paolo Delrio
Author: Hartmann Arndt
Author: Martin Asslaber
Author: Michele Maio
Author: Giuseppe V. Masucci
Author: Martin Mihm
Author: Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha
Author: James P. Allison
Author: Sacha Gnjatic
Author: Leif Hakansson
Author: Christoph Huber
Author: Harpreet Singh-Jasuja
Author: Heinz Zwierzina
Author: Luigi Laghi
Author: Fabio Grizzi
Author: Pamela S. Ohashi
Author: Patricia A. Shaw
Author: Blaise A. Clarke
Author: Bradly G. Wouters
Author: Yutaka Kawakami
Author: Shoichi Hazama
Author: Kiyotaka Okuno
Author: Ena Wang
Author: Jill O'Donnell-Tormey
Author: Christine Lagorce
Author: Graham Pawelec
Author: Michael I. Nishimura
Author: Robert Hawkins
Author: Réjean Lapointe
Author: Andreas Lundqvist
Author: Samir N. Khleif
Author: Shuji Ogino
Author: Peter Gibbs
Author: Paul Waring
Author: Noriyuki Sato
Author: Toshihiko Torigoe
Author: Kyogo Itoh
Author: Prabhu S. Patel
Author: Shilin N. Shukla
Author: Richard Palmqvist
Author: Iris D. Nagtegaal
Author: Yili Wang
Author: Corrado D'Arrigo
Author: Scott Kopetz
Author: Frank A. Sinicrope
Author: Giorgio Trinchieri
Author: Thomas F. Gajewski
Author: Paolo A. Ascierto
Author: Bernard A. Fox

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