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The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: a long-term (>1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: a long-term (>1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles
The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: a long-term (>1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles
Hole U1395B, drilled southeast of Montserrat during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340, provides a long (>1 Ma) and detailed record of eruptive and mass-wasting events (>130 discrete events). This record can be used to explore the temporal evolution in volcanic activity and landslides at an arc volcano. Analysis of tephra fall and volcaniclastic turbidite deposits in the drill cores reveals three heightened periods of volcanic activity on the island of Montserrat (?930 ka to ?900 ka, ?810 ka to ?760 ka, and ?190 ka to ?120 ka) that coincide with periods of increased volcano instability and mass-wasting. The youngest of these periods marks the peak in activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano. The largest flank collapse of this volcano (?130 ka) occurred towards the end of this period, and two younger landslides also occurred during a period of relatively elevated volcanism. These three landslides represent the only large (>0.3 km3) flank collapses of the Soufrière Hills edifice, and their timing also coincides with periods of rapid sea-level rise (>5 m/ka). Available age data from other island arc volcanoes suggests a general correlation between the timing of large landslides and periods of rapid sea-level rise, but this is not observed for volcanoes in intra-plate ocean settings. We thus infer that rapid sea-level rise may modulate the timing of collapse at island arc volcanoes, but not in larger ocean-island settings.
Landslide, volcanism, sea-level, IODP, Expedition 340
1525-2027
2591-2611
Coussens, Maya
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Wall-Palmer, Deborah
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Talling, Peter J.
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Watt, Sebastian F.L.
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Cassidy, Michael
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Jutzeler, Martin
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Clare, Michael A.
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Hunt, James E.
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Manga, Michael
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Gernon, Thomas M.
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Palmer, Martin R.
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Hatter, Stuart J.
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Boudon, Georges
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Endo, Daisuke
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Fujinawa, Akihiko
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Hatfield, Robert
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Hornbach, Matthew J.
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Ishizuka, Osamu
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Kataoka, Kyoko
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Le Friant, Anne
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Maeno, Fukashi
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McCanta, Molly
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Stinton, Adam J.
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Coussens, Maya
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Wall-Palmer, Deborah
c99bfc4a-a64f-489f-93d2-3517beafd554
Talling, Peter J.
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Watt, Sebastian F.L.
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Cassidy, Michael
fc0e9729-9c71-477d-a4e3-39698155e6fc
Jutzeler, Martin
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Clare, Michael A.
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Hunt, James E.
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Manga, Michael
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Gernon, Thomas M.
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Palmer, Martin R.
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Hatter, Stuart J.
b43a8c1b-8ae3-4764-8238-3dc597aa0d71
Boudon, Georges
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Endo, Daisuke
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Fujinawa, Akihiko
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Hatfield, Robert
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Hornbach, Matthew J.
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Ishizuka, Osamu
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Kataoka, Kyoko
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Le Friant, Anne
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Maeno, Fukashi
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McCanta, Molly
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Stinton, Adam J.
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Coussens, Maya, Wall-Palmer, Deborah, Talling, Peter J., Watt, Sebastian F.L., Cassidy, Michael, Jutzeler, Martin, Clare, Michael A., Hunt, James E., Manga, Michael, Gernon, Thomas M., Palmer, Martin R., Hatter, Stuart J., Boudon, Georges, Endo, Daisuke, Fujinawa, Akihiko, Hatfield, Robert, Hornbach, Matthew J., Ishizuka, Osamu, Kataoka, Kyoko, Le Friant, Anne, Maeno, Fukashi, McCanta, Molly and Stinton, Adam J. (2016) The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: a long-term (>1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 17 (7), 2591-2611. (doi:10.1002/2015GC006053).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Hole U1395B, drilled southeast of Montserrat during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340, provides a long (>1 Ma) and detailed record of eruptive and mass-wasting events (>130 discrete events). This record can be used to explore the temporal evolution in volcanic activity and landslides at an arc volcano. Analysis of tephra fall and volcaniclastic turbidite deposits in the drill cores reveals three heightened periods of volcanic activity on the island of Montserrat (?930 ka to ?900 ka, ?810 ka to ?760 ka, and ?190 ka to ?120 ka) that coincide with periods of increased volcano instability and mass-wasting. The youngest of these periods marks the peak in activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano. The largest flank collapse of this volcano (?130 ka) occurred towards the end of this period, and two younger landslides also occurred during a period of relatively elevated volcanism. These three landslides represent the only large (>0.3 km3) flank collapses of the Soufrière Hills edifice, and their timing also coincides with periods of rapid sea-level rise (>5 m/ka). Available age data from other island arc volcanoes suggests a general correlation between the timing of large landslides and periods of rapid sea-level rise, but this is not observed for volcanoes in intra-plate ocean settings. We thus infer that rapid sea-level rise may modulate the timing of collapse at island arc volcanoes, but not in larger ocean-island settings.

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Accepted/In Press date: 5 June 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 16 July 2016
Keywords: Landslide, volcanism, sea-level, IODP, Expedition 340
Organisations: Geochemistry, Marine Geoscience

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 397285
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/397285
ISSN: 1525-2027
PURE UUID: c3f8af84-3f66-46f7-8fdf-ea959266d600
ORCID for Stuart J. Hatter: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0760-5275

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Date deposited: 23 Jun 2016 15:51
Last modified: 03 Dec 2019 06:39

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Contributors

Author: Maya Coussens
Author: Deborah Wall-Palmer
Author: Peter J. Talling
Author: Sebastian F.L. Watt
Author: Michael Cassidy
Author: Martin Jutzeler
Author: Michael A. Clare
Author: James E. Hunt
Author: Michael Manga
Author: Stuart J. Hatter ORCID iD
Author: Georges Boudon
Author: Daisuke Endo
Author: Akihiko Fujinawa
Author: Robert Hatfield
Author: Matthew J. Hornbach
Author: Osamu Ishizuka
Author: Kyoko Kataoka
Author: Anne Le Friant
Author: Fukashi Maeno
Author: Molly McCanta
Author: Adam J. Stinton

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