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Evolution of structural, mechanical and tribological properties of Ni–P/MWCNT coatings as a function of annealing temperature

Evolution of structural, mechanical and tribological properties of Ni–P/MWCNT coatings as a function of annealing temperature
Evolution of structural, mechanical and tribological properties of Ni–P/MWCNT coatings as a function of annealing temperature
The structural, mechanical and tribological properties of Ni–P/MWCNT coatings annealed at various temperatures (350–500 °C) were investigated using XRD, SEM, nanoindentation and tribometer to determine the optimal annealing temperature for their enhanced tribological properties. The results showed that the annealed coatings comprised a hard Ni3P phase, and consequently presented a higher hardness (from 7.0 ± 0.3 to 8.2 ± 1.4 GPa) than the as-plated sample (6.0 ± 0.9 GPa). With the annealing temperature increasing from 350 °C to 500 °C, the crystallinity of coating was enhanced with larger crystal grains of Ni and Ni3P, which led to a decline in hardness (from 8.2 to 7.0 GPa) due to the Hall-Petch effect. Owing to the lubrication effect of H3PO4 arising from the tribochemical reaction of Ni3P with ambient environment, the annealed samples exhibited lower friction coefficients (0.71 ~ 0.86) compared to the as-plated coating (0.87). A combination of low surface roughness and the reduction of oxides on wear track contributed to the lowest friction coefficient of Ni–P/MWCNT annealed at 400 °C. However, the decomposition of amorphous carbon in MWCNT over 380 °C produced less dense coatings (for annealing temperatures 400–500 °C), and their incompact structure led to a higher wear rate (2.9–3.0 × 10? 5 mm3/Nm) compared to the as-plated sample (2.4 × 10? 5 mm3/Nm). In contrast, Ni–P/MWCNT coating annealed at 350 °C (< 380 °C) exhibited a better wear resistance (4.3 × 10? 6 mm3/Nm). Thus, 350 °C was found to be the optimal annealing temperature to lower the friction coefficient and enhance the wear resistance of Ni–P/MWCNT coatings
nickel-phosphorus, MWCNT, electrodeposition, tribology, annealing
0257-8972
195-201
Wang, Qianzhi
696b2954-9bbe-4e19-a9d2-22435e55d9b4
Callisti, Mauro
c752bde7-436d-4c04-8033-3255cb289777
Miranda, Alberto
1a0a900b-0cd7-444b-9e25-6763e844b3fd
McKay, Brian
19f164ad-59d8-494e-ae69-c351872dee48
Deligkiozi, Ioanna
ed8de999-2254-42bd-8557-bd68f575e79b
Milickovic, Tatjana Kosanovic
804b2465-b494-44ab-a508-d21e38ccc9dd
Zoikis-Karathanasis, Alexandros
fb5d6a0a-7850-4216-8e38-0ca45fb388c7
Hrissagis, Kostas
f7ed75ab-2137-4c05-890f-fe2fd0f28b26
Magagnin, Luca
7e73842b-5f8b-4225-84bd-69d6f36a664d
Polcar, Tomas
c669b663-3ba9-4e7b-9f97-8ef5655ac6d2
Wang, Qianzhi
696b2954-9bbe-4e19-a9d2-22435e55d9b4
Callisti, Mauro
c752bde7-436d-4c04-8033-3255cb289777
Miranda, Alberto
1a0a900b-0cd7-444b-9e25-6763e844b3fd
McKay, Brian
19f164ad-59d8-494e-ae69-c351872dee48
Deligkiozi, Ioanna
ed8de999-2254-42bd-8557-bd68f575e79b
Milickovic, Tatjana Kosanovic
804b2465-b494-44ab-a508-d21e38ccc9dd
Zoikis-Karathanasis, Alexandros
fb5d6a0a-7850-4216-8e38-0ca45fb388c7
Hrissagis, Kostas
f7ed75ab-2137-4c05-890f-fe2fd0f28b26
Magagnin, Luca
7e73842b-5f8b-4225-84bd-69d6f36a664d
Polcar, Tomas
c669b663-3ba9-4e7b-9f97-8ef5655ac6d2

Wang, Qianzhi, Callisti, Mauro, Miranda, Alberto, McKay, Brian, Deligkiozi, Ioanna, Milickovic, Tatjana Kosanovic, Zoikis-Karathanasis, Alexandros, Hrissagis, Kostas, Magagnin, Luca and Polcar, Tomas (2016) Evolution of structural, mechanical and tribological properties of Ni–P/MWCNT coatings as a function of annealing temperature. Surface and Coatings Technology, 302, 195-201. (doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.06.011).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The structural, mechanical and tribological properties of Ni–P/MWCNT coatings annealed at various temperatures (350–500 °C) were investigated using XRD, SEM, nanoindentation and tribometer to determine the optimal annealing temperature for their enhanced tribological properties. The results showed that the annealed coatings comprised a hard Ni3P phase, and consequently presented a higher hardness (from 7.0 ± 0.3 to 8.2 ± 1.4 GPa) than the as-plated sample (6.0 ± 0.9 GPa). With the annealing temperature increasing from 350 °C to 500 °C, the crystallinity of coating was enhanced with larger crystal grains of Ni and Ni3P, which led to a decline in hardness (from 8.2 to 7.0 GPa) due to the Hall-Petch effect. Owing to the lubrication effect of H3PO4 arising from the tribochemical reaction of Ni3P with ambient environment, the annealed samples exhibited lower friction coefficients (0.71 ~ 0.86) compared to the as-plated coating (0.87). A combination of low surface roughness and the reduction of oxides on wear track contributed to the lowest friction coefficient of Ni–P/MWCNT annealed at 400 °C. However, the decomposition of amorphous carbon in MWCNT over 380 °C produced less dense coatings (for annealing temperatures 400–500 °C), and their incompact structure led to a higher wear rate (2.9–3.0 × 10? 5 mm3/Nm) compared to the as-plated sample (2.4 × 10? 5 mm3/Nm). In contrast, Ni–P/MWCNT coating annealed at 350 °C (< 380 °C) exhibited a better wear resistance (4.3 × 10? 6 mm3/Nm). Thus, 350 °C was found to be the optimal annealing temperature to lower the friction coefficient and enhance the wear resistance of Ni–P/MWCNT coatings

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Accepted/In Press date: 5 June 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 6 June 2016
Keywords: nickel-phosphorus, MWCNT, electrodeposition, tribology, annealing
Organisations: Engineering Mats & Surface Engineerg Gp, Engineering Science Unit, nCATS Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 397337
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/397337
ISSN: 0257-8972
PURE UUID: 248444c5-badf-45e3-b458-2df34262a65e
ORCID for Tomas Polcar: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0863-6287

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Date deposited: 30 Jun 2016 11:40
Last modified: 17 Dec 2019 06:45

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Contributors

Author: Qianzhi Wang
Author: Mauro Callisti
Author: Alberto Miranda
Author: Brian McKay
Author: Ioanna Deligkiozi
Author: Tatjana Kosanovic Milickovic
Author: Alexandros Zoikis-Karathanasis
Author: Kostas Hrissagis
Author: Luca Magagnin
Author: Tomas Polcar ORCID iD

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