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Measuring nickel masses in Type Ia supernovae using cobalt emission in nebular phase spectra

Measuring nickel masses in Type Ia supernovae using cobalt emission in nebular phase spectra
Measuring nickel masses in Type Ia supernovae using cobalt emission in nebular phase spectra
The light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powered by the radioactive decay of 56Ni to 56Co at early times, and the decay of 56Co to 56Fe from ?60 d after explosion. We examine the evolution of the [Co?iii] ?5893 emission complex during the nebular phase for SNe Ia with multiple nebular spectra and show that the line flux follows the square of the mass of 56Co as a function of time. This result indicates both efficient local energy deposition from positrons produced in 56Co decay and long-term stability of the ionization state of the nebula. We compile SN Ia nebular spectra from the literature and present 21 new late-phase spectra of 7 SNe Ia, including SN 2014J. From these we measure the flux in the [Co?iii] ?5893 line and remove its well-behaved time dependence to infer the initial mass of 56Ni (MNi) produced in the explosion. We then examine 56Ni yields for different SN Ia ejected masses (Mej – calculated using the relation between light-curve width and ejected mass) and find that the 56Ni masses of SNe Ia fall into two regimes: for narrow light curves (low stretch s ? 0.7–0.9), MNi is clustered near MNi ? 0.4?M? and shows a shallow increase as Mej increases from ?1 to 1.4?M?; at high stretch, Mej clusters at the Chandrasekhar mass (1.4?M?) while MNi spans a broad range from 0.6 to 1.2?M?. This could constitute evidence for two distinct SN Ia explosion mechanisms.
0035-8711
3816-3842
Childress, Michael J.
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Hillier, D. John
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Seitenzahl, Ivo
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Sullivan, Mark
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Maguire, Kate
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Taubenberger, Stefan
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Scalzo, Richard
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Ruiter, Ashley
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Blagorodnova, Nadejda
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Camacho, Yssavo
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Castillo, Jayden
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Elias-Rosa, Nancy
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Fraser, Morgan
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Gal-Yam, Avishay
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Graham, Melissa
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Howell, D. Andrew
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Inserra, Cosimo
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Jha, Saurabh W.
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Kumar, Sahana
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Mazzali, Paolo A.
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McCully, Curtis
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Morales-Garoffolo, Antonia
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Pandya, Viraj
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Polshaw, Joe
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Schmidt, Brian
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Smartt, Stephen
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Smith, Ken W.
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Sollerman, Jesper
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Spyromilio, Jason
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Tucker, Brad
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Valenti, Stefano
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Walton, Nicholas
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Wolf, Christian
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Yaron, Ofer
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Young, D. R.
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Yuan, Fang
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Zhang, Bonnie
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Childress, Michael J.
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Hillier, D. John
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Seitenzahl, Ivo
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Sullivan, Mark
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Maguire, Kate
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Taubenberger, Stefan
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Scalzo, Richard
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Ruiter, Ashley
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Blagorodnova, Nadejda
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Camacho, Yssavo
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Castillo, Jayden
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Fraser, Morgan
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Gal-Yam, Avishay
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Graham, Melissa
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Howell, D. Andrew
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Inserra, Cosimo
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Jha, Saurabh W.
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Kumar, Sahana
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Mazzali, Paolo A.
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McCully, Curtis
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Morales-Garoffolo, Antonia
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Pandya, Viraj
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Polshaw, Joe
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Schmidt, Brian
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Smartt, Stephen
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Smith, Ken W.
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Sollerman, Jesper
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Spyromilio, Jason
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Tucker, Brad
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Valenti, Stefano
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Walton, Nicholas
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Wolf, Christian
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Yaron, Ofer
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Young, D. R.
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Yuan, Fang
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Zhang, Bonnie
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Childress, Michael J., Hillier, D. John, Seitenzahl, Ivo, Sullivan, Mark, Maguire, Kate, Taubenberger, Stefan, Scalzo, Richard, Ruiter, Ashley, Blagorodnova, Nadejda, Camacho, Yssavo, Castillo, Jayden, Elias-Rosa, Nancy, Fraser, Morgan, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Graham, Melissa, Howell, D. Andrew, Inserra, Cosimo, Jha, Saurabh W., Kumar, Sahana, Mazzali, Paolo A., McCully, Curtis, Morales-Garoffolo, Antonia, Pandya, Viraj, Polshaw, Joe, Schmidt, Brian, Smartt, Stephen, Smith, Ken W., Sollerman, Jesper, Spyromilio, Jason, Tucker, Brad, Valenti, Stefano, Walton, Nicholas, Wolf, Christian, Yaron, Ofer, Young, D. R., Yuan, Fang and Zhang, Bonnie (2015) Measuring nickel masses in Type Ia supernovae using cobalt emission in nebular phase spectra. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 454 (4), 3816-3842. (doi:10.1093/mnras/stv2173).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powered by the radioactive decay of 56Ni to 56Co at early times, and the decay of 56Co to 56Fe from ?60 d after explosion. We examine the evolution of the [Co?iii] ?5893 emission complex during the nebular phase for SNe Ia with multiple nebular spectra and show that the line flux follows the square of the mass of 56Co as a function of time. This result indicates both efficient local energy deposition from positrons produced in 56Co decay and long-term stability of the ionization state of the nebula. We compile SN Ia nebular spectra from the literature and present 21 new late-phase spectra of 7 SNe Ia, including SN 2014J. From these we measure the flux in the [Co?iii] ?5893 line and remove its well-behaved time dependence to infer the initial mass of 56Ni (MNi) produced in the explosion. We then examine 56Ni yields for different SN Ia ejected masses (Mej – calculated using the relation between light-curve width and ejected mass) and find that the 56Ni masses of SNe Ia fall into two regimes: for narrow light curves (low stretch s ? 0.7–0.9), MNi is clustered near MNi ? 0.4?M? and shows a shallow increase as Mej increases from ?1 to 1.4?M?; at high stretch, Mej clusters at the Chandrasekhar mass (1.4?M?) while MNi spans a broad range from 0.6 to 1.2?M?. This could constitute evidence for two distinct SN Ia explosion mechanisms.

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Accepted/In Press date: 17 September 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 23 October 2015
Published date: 21 December 2015
Organisations: Astronomy Group, Quantum, Light & Matter Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 397425
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/397425
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: 5d817e35-0356-4023-ba8f-b83a321a2d78
ORCID for Mark Sullivan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9053-4820

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Date deposited: 01 Jul 2016 09:06
Last modified: 15 Aug 2019 00:36

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Contributors

Author: Michael J. Childress
Author: D. John Hillier
Author: Ivo Seitenzahl
Author: Mark Sullivan ORCID iD
Author: Kate Maguire
Author: Stefan Taubenberger
Author: Richard Scalzo
Author: Ashley Ruiter
Author: Nadejda Blagorodnova
Author: Yssavo Camacho
Author: Jayden Castillo
Author: Nancy Elias-Rosa
Author: Morgan Fraser
Author: Avishay Gal-Yam
Author: Melissa Graham
Author: D. Andrew Howell
Author: Cosimo Inserra
Author: Saurabh W. Jha
Author: Sahana Kumar
Author: Paolo A. Mazzali
Author: Curtis McCully
Author: Antonia Morales-Garoffolo
Author: Viraj Pandya
Author: Joe Polshaw
Author: Brian Schmidt
Author: Stephen Smartt
Author: Ken W. Smith
Author: Jesper Sollerman
Author: Jason Spyromilio
Author: Brad Tucker
Author: Stefano Valenti
Author: Nicholas Walton
Author: Christian Wolf
Author: Ofer Yaron
Author: D. R. Young
Author: Fang Yuan
Author: Bonnie Zhang

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