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Mycoplasma hominis variable adherence-associated antigen: a major adhesin and highly variable surface membrane protein

Mycoplasma hominis variable adherence-associated antigen: a major adhesin and highly variable surface membrane protein
Mycoplasma hominis variable adherence-associated antigen: a major adhesin and highly variable surface membrane protein
Mycoplasma hominis is a member of the genus mycoplasma and has only been isolated from humans.
It is most frequently isolated from the urogenital tract in the absence of symptoms, but has
been isolated from wounds, brain abscess, inflamed joints, blood and placenta from pregnancy
with adverse outcomes (especially preterm birth and occasionally term stillbirth). Controversy
surrounds whether this organism is a commensal or a pathogen; however, Mycoplasma hominis
has been shown to induce preterm birth and foetal lung injury in an experimental primate model
as a sole pathogen. These bacteria are known to exist as a parasitic infection, due to a number of
missing synthetic and metabolism pathway enzymes from their minimal genome; therefore, the
ability to adhere to host cells is important. Here we provide a review that clarifies the different
nomenclature (variable adherence-associated antigen and P50) that has been used to investigate
the major surface adhesin for this organism, as well as reported mechanisms responsible for
turning off its expression. Variation in the structure of this protein can be used to separate strains
into six categories, a method that we were able to use to distinguish and characterise 12 UK
strains isolated from between 1983 and 2012. We propose that the Vaa should be used in further
investigations to determine if commensal populations and those that are associated with disease
utilise different forms of this adhesin, as this is under-studied and identification of pathogenic determinants
is overdue for this organism.
mycoplasma hominis, variable-adherence associated antigen, host-pathogen interaction, surface
2165-3402
736-746
Brown, Rebecca
a4912e7b-0056-4d4d-843d-3baf69f97f58
Chalker, Victoria
7e7a099b-3b9a-4f62-b8d3-b8e469cb1541
Spiller, O. Brad
a802a26a-804c-4839-a25e-830e3856e852
Brown, Rebecca
a4912e7b-0056-4d4d-843d-3baf69f97f58
Chalker, Victoria
7e7a099b-3b9a-4f62-b8d3-b8e469cb1541
Spiller, O. Brad
a802a26a-804c-4839-a25e-830e3856e852

Brown, Rebecca, Chalker, Victoria and Spiller, O. Brad (2014) Mycoplasma hominis variable adherence-associated antigen: a major adhesin and highly variable surface membrane protein. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 736-746. (doi:10.4236/aim.2014.411080).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Mycoplasma hominis is a member of the genus mycoplasma and has only been isolated from humans.
It is most frequently isolated from the urogenital tract in the absence of symptoms, but has
been isolated from wounds, brain abscess, inflamed joints, blood and placenta from pregnancy
with adverse outcomes (especially preterm birth and occasionally term stillbirth). Controversy
surrounds whether this organism is a commensal or a pathogen; however, Mycoplasma hominis
has been shown to induce preterm birth and foetal lung injury in an experimental primate model
as a sole pathogen. These bacteria are known to exist as a parasitic infection, due to a number of
missing synthetic and metabolism pathway enzymes from their minimal genome; therefore, the
ability to adhere to host cells is important. Here we provide a review that clarifies the different
nomenclature (variable adherence-associated antigen and P50) that has been used to investigate
the major surface adhesin for this organism, as well as reported mechanisms responsible for
turning off its expression. Variation in the structure of this protein can be used to separate strains
into six categories, a method that we were able to use to distinguish and characterise 12 UK
strains isolated from between 1983 and 2012. We propose that the Vaa should be used in further
investigations to determine if commensal populations and those that are associated with disease
utilise different forms of this adhesin, as this is under-studied and identification of pathogenic determinants
is overdue for this organism.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 10 July 2014
Published date: September 2014
Keywords: mycoplasma hominis, variable-adherence associated antigen, host-pathogen interaction, surface
Organisations: Clinical & Experimental Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 399085
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/399085
ISSN: 2165-3402
PURE UUID: c23b2a83-3a28-4c9d-bf1b-3ce8d8d91067
ORCID for Rebecca Brown: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5825-6859

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Date deposited: 04 Aug 2016 11:38
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 12:20

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Contributors

Author: Rebecca Brown ORCID iD
Author: Victoria Chalker
Author: O. Brad Spiller

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