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Carbon-cryogel hierarchical composites as effective and scalable filters for removal of trace organic pollutants from water

Carbon-cryogel hierarchical composites as effective and scalable filters for removal of trace organic pollutants from water
Carbon-cryogel hierarchical composites as effective and scalable filters for removal of trace organic pollutants from water
Effective technologies are required to remove organic micropollutants from large fluid volumes to overcome present and future challenges in water and effluent treatment. A novel hierarchical composite filter material for rapid and effective removal of polar organic contaminants from water was developed. The composite is fabricated from phenolic resin-derived carbon microbeads with controllable porous structure and specific surface area embedded in a monolithic, flow permeable, poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel. The bead-embedded monolithic composite filter retains the bulk of the high adsorptive capacity of the carbon microbeads while improving pore diffusion rates of organic pollutants. Water spiked with organic contaminants, both at environmentally relevant concentrations and at high levels of contamination, was used to determine the purification limits of the filter. Flow through tests using water spiked with the pesticides atrazine (32 mg/L) and malathion (16 mg/L) indicated maximum adsorptive capacities of 641 and 591 mg pollutant/g carbon, respectively. Over 400 bed volumes of water contaminated with 32 mg atrazine/L, and over 27,400 bed volumes of water contaminated with 2 ?g atrazine/L, were treated before pesticide guideline values of 0.1 ?g/L were exceeded. High adsorptive capacity was maintained when using water with high total organic carbon (TOC) levels and high salinity. The toxicity of water filtrates was tested in vitro with human epithelial cells with no evidence of cytotoxicity after initial washing.
Composite materials, Hierarchical structures, Phenolic carbon, Cryogel, Water treatment
0301-4797
141-148
Busquets, Rosa
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Ivanov, Alexander E.
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Mbundi, Lubinda
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Hörberg, Sofia
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Kozynchenko, Oleksandr P.
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Cragg, Peter J.
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Savina, Irina N.
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Whitby, Raymond L.D.
aafe509a-7755-4843-8255-cf80f0b702ac
Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.
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Tennison, Stephen R.
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Jungvid, Hans
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Cundy, Andrew B.
994fdc96-2dce-40f4-b74b-dc638286eb08
Busquets, Rosa
d3f8511d-c34e-4bf7-956c-19e4c1c5949f
Ivanov, Alexander E.
4004845f-98a7-4e13-a74d-1f891ac5013f
Mbundi, Lubinda
282f5442-1a86-4728-8d31-f3c88669e982
Hörberg, Sofia
8c965ed4-c0b9-4bd6-982b-bb37e82e101f
Kozynchenko, Oleksandr P.
06285bf0-f13b-4c79-adfa-20afcdeb9100
Cragg, Peter J.
41d46d0a-4553-471e-af42-dccf3fa403e9
Savina, Irina N.
5e5c7acd-71ef-4fb3-baaf-0b98fec91845
Whitby, Raymond L.D.
aafe509a-7755-4843-8255-cf80f0b702ac
Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.
069cc234-fe97-4055-97ed-5bec73bf8d0d
Tennison, Stephen R.
3581e514-9b87-4039-b0bf-c80155d0005c
Jungvid, Hans
1cbccf41-ba73-425f-9d7c-d0595529b51a
Cundy, Andrew B.
994fdc96-2dce-40f4-b74b-dc638286eb08

Busquets, Rosa, Ivanov, Alexander E., Mbundi, Lubinda, Hörberg, Sofia, Kozynchenko, Oleksandr P., Cragg, Peter J., Savina, Irina N., Whitby, Raymond L.D., Mikhalovsky, Sergey V., Tennison, Stephen R., Jungvid, Hans and Cundy, Andrew B. (2016) Carbon-cryogel hierarchical composites as effective and scalable filters for removal of trace organic pollutants from water. Journal of Environmental Management, 182, 141-148. (doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.07.061).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Effective technologies are required to remove organic micropollutants from large fluid volumes to overcome present and future challenges in water and effluent treatment. A novel hierarchical composite filter material for rapid and effective removal of polar organic contaminants from water was developed. The composite is fabricated from phenolic resin-derived carbon microbeads with controllable porous structure and specific surface area embedded in a monolithic, flow permeable, poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel. The bead-embedded monolithic composite filter retains the bulk of the high adsorptive capacity of the carbon microbeads while improving pore diffusion rates of organic pollutants. Water spiked with organic contaminants, both at environmentally relevant concentrations and at high levels of contamination, was used to determine the purification limits of the filter. Flow through tests using water spiked with the pesticides atrazine (32 mg/L) and malathion (16 mg/L) indicated maximum adsorptive capacities of 641 and 591 mg pollutant/g carbon, respectively. Over 400 bed volumes of water contaminated with 32 mg atrazine/L, and over 27,400 bed volumes of water contaminated with 2 ?g atrazine/L, were treated before pesticide guideline values of 0.1 ?g/L were exceeded. High adsorptive capacity was maintained when using water with high total organic carbon (TOC) levels and high salinity. The toxicity of water filtrates was tested in vitro with human epithelial cells with no evidence of cytotoxicity after initial washing.

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Accepted/In Press date: 18 July 2016
Published date: 1 November 2016
Keywords: Composite materials, Hierarchical structures, Phenolic carbon, Cryogel, Water treatment
Organisations: Geochemistry

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 399214
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/399214
ISSN: 0301-4797
PURE UUID: a06ee888-7eb5-45f6-a55f-dcbcc7966017
ORCID for Andrew B. Cundy: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4368-2569

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Date deposited: 08 Aug 2016 15:56
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 12:21

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Contributors

Author: Rosa Busquets
Author: Alexander E. Ivanov
Author: Lubinda Mbundi
Author: Sofia Hörberg
Author: Oleksandr P. Kozynchenko
Author: Peter J. Cragg
Author: Irina N. Savina
Author: Raymond L.D. Whitby
Author: Sergey V. Mikhalovsky
Author: Stephen R. Tennison
Author: Hans Jungvid
Author: Andrew B. Cundy ORCID iD

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