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Gravitational waves within the magnetar model of superluminous supernovae and gamma-ray bursts

Gravitational waves within the magnetar model of superluminous supernovae and gamma-ray bursts
Gravitational waves within the magnetar model of superluminous supernovae and gamma-ray bursts
The light curve of many supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be explained by a sustained injection of extra energy from its possible central engine, a rapidly rotating strongly magnetic neutron star (i.e., magnetar). The magnetic dipole radiation power that the magnetar supplies comes at the expense of the star's rotational energy. However radiation by gravitational waves (GWs) can be more efficient than magnetic dipole radiation because of its stronger dependence on neutron star spin rate Ω, i.e., Ω6 (for a static "mountain") or Ω8 (for a r-mode fluid oscillation) versus Ω4 for magnetic dipole radiation. Here we use the magnetic field B and initial spin period P0 inferred from SN and GRB observations to obtain simple constraints on the dimensionless amplitude of the mountain of epsilon < 0.01 and r-mode oscillation of α < 1, the former being similar to that obtained by recent works. We then include GW emission within the magnetar model. We show that when ε > 10-4 (B/1014 G) (P0/1 ms) or α > 0.01 (B/1014 G) (P0/1 ms)2, light curves are strongly affected, with significant decrease in peak luminosity and increase in time to peak luminosity. Thus the GW effects studied here are more pronounced for low B and short P0 but are unlikely to be important in modeling SN and GRB light curves since the amplitudes needed for noticeable changes are quite large.
0035-8711
489-494
Ho, Wynn C.G.
d78d4c52-8f92-4846-876f-e04a8f803a45
Ho, Wynn C.G.
d78d4c52-8f92-4846-876f-e04a8f803a45

Ho, Wynn C.G. (2016) Gravitational waves within the magnetar model of superluminous supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 463 (1), 489-494. (doi:10.1093/mnras/stw2016).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The light curve of many supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be explained by a sustained injection of extra energy from its possible central engine, a rapidly rotating strongly magnetic neutron star (i.e., magnetar). The magnetic dipole radiation power that the magnetar supplies comes at the expense of the star's rotational energy. However radiation by gravitational waves (GWs) can be more efficient than magnetic dipole radiation because of its stronger dependence on neutron star spin rate Ω, i.e., Ω6 (for a static "mountain") or Ω8 (for a r-mode fluid oscillation) versus Ω4 for magnetic dipole radiation. Here we use the magnetic field B and initial spin period P0 inferred from SN and GRB observations to obtain simple constraints on the dimensionless amplitude of the mountain of epsilon < 0.01 and r-mode oscillation of α < 1, the former being similar to that obtained by recent works. We then include GW emission within the magnetar model. We show that when ε > 10-4 (B/1014 G) (P0/1 ms) or α > 0.01 (B/1014 G) (P0/1 ms)2, light curves are strongly affected, with significant decrease in peak luminosity and increase in time to peak luminosity. Thus the GW effects studied here are more pronounced for low B and short P0 but are unlikely to be important in modeling SN and GRB light curves since the amplitudes needed for noticeable changes are quite large.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 9 August 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 12 August 2016
Published date: 12 August 2016
Organisations: Astronomy Group, Applied Mathematics

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 399260
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/399260
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: 32085350-eda7-4ef7-8d0e-597635809c79
ORCID for Wynn C.G. Ho: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6089-6836

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Date deposited: 12 Aug 2016 15:32
Last modified: 07 Aug 2018 00:32

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