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Black hole and galaxy coevolution from continuity equation and abundance matching

Black hole and galaxy coevolution from continuity equation and abundance matching
Black hole and galaxy coevolution from continuity equation and abundance matching
We investigate the coevolution of galaxies and hosted supermassive black holes (BHs) throughout the history of the universe by a statistical approach based on the continuity equation and the abundance matching technique. Specifically, we present analytical solutions of the continuity equation without source terms to reconstruct the supermassive BH mass function from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity functions. Such an approach includes physically motivated AGN light curves tested on independent data sets, which describe the evolution of the Eddington ratio and radiative efficiency from slim- to thin-disk conditions. We nicely reproduce the local estimates of the BH mass function, the AGN duty cycle as a function of mass and redshift, along with the Eddington ratio function and the fraction of galaxies with given stellar mass hosting an AGN with given Eddington ratio. We exploit the same approach to reconstruct the observed stellar mass function at different redshift from the ultraviolet and far-IR luminosity functions associated with star formation in galaxies. These results imply that the build-up of stars and BHs in galaxies occurs via in situ processes, with dry mergers playing a marginal role at least for stellar masses ≤ 3 × 1011 M and BH masses 109 M where the statistical data are more secure and less biased by systematic errors. In addition, we develop an improved abundance matching technique to link the stellar and BH content of galaxies to the gravitationally dominant dark matter (DM) component. The resulting relationships constitute a testbed for galaxy evolution models, highlighting the complementary role of stellar and AGN feedback in the star formation process. In addition, they may be operationally implemented in numerical simulations to populate DM halos or to gauge subgrid physics. Moreover, they may be exploited to investigate the galaxy/AGN clustering as a function of redshift, mass, and/or luminosity. In fact, the clustering properties of BHs and galaxies are found to be in full agreement with current observations, thus further validating our results from the continuity equation. Finally, our analysis highlights that (i) the fraction of AGNs observed in the slim-disk regime, where most of the BH mass is accreted, increases with redshift; and (ii) already at z\gtrsim 6$ a substantial amount of dust must have formed over timescales 108 yr in strongly star-forming galaxies, making these sources well within the reach of ALMA surveys in (sub)millimeter bands.
2041-8205
1-40
Aversa, R.
c8f982f3-43e1-41eb-99a0-37fe4912ee6c
Lapi, A.
7e92f844-db1f-4d93-b7cb-d81b8a4648b1
de Zotti, G.
8e12a6e5-b234-4eae-967f-770b69c2c4ed
Shankar, F.
b10c91e4-85cd-4394-a18a-d4f049fd9cdb
Danese, L.
b9f62c31-0d7d-4751-95ae-49e397270413
Aversa, R.
c8f982f3-43e1-41eb-99a0-37fe4912ee6c
Lapi, A.
7e92f844-db1f-4d93-b7cb-d81b8a4648b1
de Zotti, G.
8e12a6e5-b234-4eae-967f-770b69c2c4ed
Shankar, F.
b10c91e4-85cd-4394-a18a-d4f049fd9cdb
Danese, L.
b9f62c31-0d7d-4751-95ae-49e397270413

Aversa, R., Lapi, A., de Zotti, G., Shankar, F. and Danese, L. (2015) Black hole and galaxy coevolution from continuity equation and abundance matching. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 810 (74), 1-40. (doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/1/74).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We investigate the coevolution of galaxies and hosted supermassive black holes (BHs) throughout the history of the universe by a statistical approach based on the continuity equation and the abundance matching technique. Specifically, we present analytical solutions of the continuity equation without source terms to reconstruct the supermassive BH mass function from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity functions. Such an approach includes physically motivated AGN light curves tested on independent data sets, which describe the evolution of the Eddington ratio and radiative efficiency from slim- to thin-disk conditions. We nicely reproduce the local estimates of the BH mass function, the AGN duty cycle as a function of mass and redshift, along with the Eddington ratio function and the fraction of galaxies with given stellar mass hosting an AGN with given Eddington ratio. We exploit the same approach to reconstruct the observed stellar mass function at different redshift from the ultraviolet and far-IR luminosity functions associated with star formation in galaxies. These results imply that the build-up of stars and BHs in galaxies occurs via in situ processes, with dry mergers playing a marginal role at least for stellar masses ≤ 3 × 1011 M and BH masses 109 M where the statistical data are more secure and less biased by systematic errors. In addition, we develop an improved abundance matching technique to link the stellar and BH content of galaxies to the gravitationally dominant dark matter (DM) component. The resulting relationships constitute a testbed for galaxy evolution models, highlighting the complementary role of stellar and AGN feedback in the star formation process. In addition, they may be operationally implemented in numerical simulations to populate DM halos or to gauge subgrid physics. Moreover, they may be exploited to investigate the galaxy/AGN clustering as a function of redshift, mass, and/or luminosity. In fact, the clustering properties of BHs and galaxies are found to be in full agreement with current observations, thus further validating our results from the continuity equation. Finally, our analysis highlights that (i) the fraction of AGNs observed in the slim-disk regime, where most of the BH mass is accreted, increases with redshift; and (ii) already at z\gtrsim 6$ a substantial amount of dust must have formed over timescales 108 yr in strongly star-forming galaxies, making these sources well within the reach of ALMA surveys in (sub)millimeter bands.

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Accepted/In Press date: 20 July 2015
Published date: 1 September 2015
Organisations: Astronomy Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 401226
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/401226
ISSN: 2041-8205
PURE UUID: bc586f72-45d5-4222-8b69-b458f926597f

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Date deposited: 11 Oct 2016 11:01
Last modified: 14 Aug 2019 18:06

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