The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Educational process factors for effective education in resource-constrained countries: a multilevel analysis

Educational process factors for effective education in resource-constrained countries: a multilevel analysis
Educational process factors for effective education in resource-constrained countries: a multilevel analysis
Earlier conceptualisations of educational effectiveness magnified the importance of the need for significant amounts of fiscal and material resources to attain effective education. In the past, this has seemed to be justification for resource-constrained countries to seek mainly external support to fund their educational budgets in anticipation of attaining an effective education. Indeed,on many occasions any attempt to attain effective education in resource-constrained countries has been thwarted by the perceived lack of fiscal and material resources. Nonetheless, it is emerging that resource-constrained countries can actually have access to effective education. Using hierarchical linear modelling analysis, this study draws on the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium on Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ)database to generate an effective education model for resource-constrained countries, through a critical analysis of educational process factors that account for significant variations in educational outcomes.

The Rasch technique was used to construct most of the educational process indicators that were fed into the estimated multilevel models for reading and mathematics outcomes. On adjusting for pupil characteristics, contextual factors and school resource inputs, the process factors that significantly predict both mathematics and reading outcomes include opportunity to learn(OTL), school management competences, school-community relationships and school-based HIV/AIDS support. Further, for both mathematics and reading there is a significant interaction effect between teacher academic and professional capital (TAPC)and OTL; the effects of TAPC are completely mediated by OTL. On the other hand, whereas resource usage significantly predicts reading attainment, it does not predict mathematics attainment. Additionally, educational processes jointly explain more variance in mathematics attainment (16.5%) than that in reading(6%). Nonetheless, the preferred models explain about 25% and 26% of total variance in reading and mathematics, respectively. Overall, each of the two models explains more variance at Level 3(school level) than other levels. Unexpectedly, whereas there is inequity in the distribution of school inputs and opportunities for pupils to learn (OTL), there is limited evidence of inequity in the general distribution of learning outcomes by socio-economic status (SES)groupings.

The findings of this study extend the theory and practice of educational effectiveness,especially in developing countries where educational effectiveness research has always been limited to examining the potential impact of easily quantifiable educational inputs (using production functions) on educational outputs. Moreover, the study provides the various educational constituencies with sound evidence ofvarious educational process factors that could positively impact educational outcomes,and implores policy makers and practitioners to abandon input-output models for system-based models, simultaneously to pursue both quality and equity dimensions within educational outcomes and,most importantly, to refocus attention on the school and teaching processes
Mugendawala, Hamis
649fd5c5-7e17-44bf-b839-e8e148aeabf2
Mugendawala, Hamis
649fd5c5-7e17-44bf-b839-e8e148aeabf2
Muijs, Roland
62af2eff-0cb5-403b-81cc-7a3bfb3e640e

Mugendawala, Hamis (2016) Educational process factors for effective education in resource-constrained countries: a multilevel analysis. University of Southampton, School of Education, Doctoral Thesis, 294pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Earlier conceptualisations of educational effectiveness magnified the importance of the need for significant amounts of fiscal and material resources to attain effective education. In the past, this has seemed to be justification for resource-constrained countries to seek mainly external support to fund their educational budgets in anticipation of attaining an effective education. Indeed,on many occasions any attempt to attain effective education in resource-constrained countries has been thwarted by the perceived lack of fiscal and material resources. Nonetheless, it is emerging that resource-constrained countries can actually have access to effective education. Using hierarchical linear modelling analysis, this study draws on the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium on Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ)database to generate an effective education model for resource-constrained countries, through a critical analysis of educational process factors that account for significant variations in educational outcomes.

The Rasch technique was used to construct most of the educational process indicators that were fed into the estimated multilevel models for reading and mathematics outcomes. On adjusting for pupil characteristics, contextual factors and school resource inputs, the process factors that significantly predict both mathematics and reading outcomes include opportunity to learn(OTL), school management competences, school-community relationships and school-based HIV/AIDS support. Further, for both mathematics and reading there is a significant interaction effect between teacher academic and professional capital (TAPC)and OTL; the effects of TAPC are completely mediated by OTL. On the other hand, whereas resource usage significantly predicts reading attainment, it does not predict mathematics attainment. Additionally, educational processes jointly explain more variance in mathematics attainment (16.5%) than that in reading(6%). Nonetheless, the preferred models explain about 25% and 26% of total variance in reading and mathematics, respectively. Overall, each of the two models explains more variance at Level 3(school level) than other levels. Unexpectedly, whereas there is inequity in the distribution of school inputs and opportunities for pupils to learn (OTL), there is limited evidence of inequity in the general distribution of learning outcomes by socio-economic status (SES)groupings.

The findings of this study extend the theory and practice of educational effectiveness,especially in developing countries where educational effectiveness research has always been limited to examining the potential impact of easily quantifiable educational inputs (using production functions) on educational outputs. Moreover, the study provides the various educational constituencies with sound evidence ofvarious educational process factors that could positively impact educational outcomes,and implores policy makers and practitioners to abandon input-output models for system-based models, simultaneously to pursue both quality and equity dimensions within educational outcomes and,most importantly, to refocus attention on the school and teaching processes

Text
Thesis_Hamis after VIVA REPORTprint.pdf - Other
Available under License University of Southampton Thesis Licence.
Download (3MB)

More information

Published date: October 2016
Organisations: University of Southampton, Southampton Education School

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 401235
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/401235
PURE UUID: f2f542c3-23a2-4aa0-a44d-2c5bf5d8c896
ORCID for Roland Muijs: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0131-8921

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 27 Oct 2016 12:40
Last modified: 20 Nov 2019 05:01

Export record

Contributors

Author: Hamis Mugendawala
Thesis advisor: Roland Muijs ORCID iD

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×