The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Review of global HVDC subsea cable projects and the application of sea electrodes

Review of global HVDC subsea cable projects and the application of sea electrodes
Review of global HVDC subsea cable projects and the application of sea electrodes
Sea electrodes have been used since the first HVDC subsea links were installed in the 1950s and provide a simple proven solution for the return current path. Today around 30% of the approximately 40 HVDC subsea links in service use sea electrodes as the return current path under normal or emergency operation conditions. This paper reviews the evolution of interconnectors with sea electrodes and the factors, such as location, environmental impact, current capacity and financial factors (cost, flexibility, losses) which need to be assessed before adopting a sea electrode. In particular findings from environmental studies undertaken on existing sea electrodes are reviewed, as well as, the detailed content of recent Environmental Impact Statements for HVDC projects with proposed sea returns. Finally, the reasons for a change in design on links with a proposed sea return to a metallic return are also considered.
HVDC, Cable, Subsea cable, Marine electrode, Sea electrode, Return path
0142-0615
121-135
Sutton, Simon J.
571c7136-1eb6-44e1-8979-ca0829469a6b
Lewin, Paul L.
78b4fc49-1cb3-4db9-ba90-3ae70c0f639e
Swingler, Steven G.
4f13fbb2-7d2e-480a-8687-acea6a4ed735
Sutton, Simon J.
571c7136-1eb6-44e1-8979-ca0829469a6b
Lewin, Paul L.
78b4fc49-1cb3-4db9-ba90-3ae70c0f639e
Swingler, Steven G.
4f13fbb2-7d2e-480a-8687-acea6a4ed735

Sutton, Simon J., Lewin, Paul L. and Swingler, Steven G. (2017) Review of global HVDC subsea cable projects and the application of sea electrodes. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 87, 121-135. (doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2016.11.009).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Sea electrodes have been used since the first HVDC subsea links were installed in the 1950s and provide a simple proven solution for the return current path. Today around 30% of the approximately 40 HVDC subsea links in service use sea electrodes as the return current path under normal or emergency operation conditions. This paper reviews the evolution of interconnectors with sea electrodes and the factors, such as location, environmental impact, current capacity and financial factors (cost, flexibility, losses) which need to be assessed before adopting a sea electrode. In particular findings from environmental studies undertaken on existing sea electrodes are reviewed, as well as, the detailed content of recent Environmental Impact Statements for HVDC projects with proposed sea returns. Finally, the reasons for a change in design on links with a proposed sea return to a metallic return are also considered.

Text
__filestore.soton.ac.uk_users_skr1c15_mydocuments_eprints_ECS_Sutton - EEE_Sea electrodes review submitted draft v2_1 updated for reviewers comments.docx - Accepted Manuscript
Download (371kB)
Text
1-s2.0-S0142061516315058-main.pdf - Version of Record
Restricted to Registered users only
Download (1MB)
Request a copy

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 15 November 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 21 December 2016
Published date: May 2017
Keywords: HVDC, Cable, Subsea cable, Marine electrode, Sea electrode, Return path
Organisations: EEE

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 403368
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/403368
ISSN: 0142-0615
PURE UUID: 4e4d10cd-e35e-4589-91de-7d1d96cfd963

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 30 Nov 2016 11:57
Last modified: 10 Jan 2018 05:08

Export record

Altmetrics

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×