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Lineage splitting, secondary contacts and genetic admixture of a widely distributed marine invertebrate

Lineage splitting, secondary contacts and genetic admixture of a widely distributed marine invertebrate
Lineage splitting, secondary contacts and genetic admixture of a widely distributed marine invertebrate
Aim

We explore the genetic structure of the widespread starfish, Marthasterias spp., in order to: (1) identify historical causes of genetic divergence, (2) test the effect of past climatic events on populations’ demography and (3) explore main barriers to gene flow.

Location

North- and south-east Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

Methods

We amplified and sequenced three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron, and genotyped five nuclear microsatellite loci from 337 specimens. We reconstructed the phylogeny and phylogeography of Marthasterias spp. using the obtained DNA sequences, and used the microsatellite loci to explore major genetic discontinuities along the European coast.

Results

Our results suggested the existence of two allopatric species, one in the Northern Hemisphere (M. glacialis) and another in the Southern Hemisphere (Marthasterias sp.). This allopatric split could be attributed to recent changes in oceanographic circulation of the eastern Atlantic Ocean that may have acted as barrier to gene flow. Mitochondrial divergence between European lineages could be attributed to potential vicariance during Pleistocene glacial periods, but was not supported by nuclear markers, which may be indicative of recent genetic admixture. Secondary contact after glacial periods and gene flow across the Gibraltar Strait may explain this pattern. Genetic structure of M. glacialis based on nuclear markers did not show much divergence among geographical areas although most populations were significantly differentiated.

Main conclusions

The phylogeography of the widely distributed genus Marthasterias has most likely been shaped by recent changes in climate and oceanographic patterns. Major changes of ocean current patterns initially resulted in splitting between Northern and Southern Hemisphere lineages. Subsequently, glacial periods most likely enhanced vicariance of European lineages, followed by a post-glacial expansion facilitating secondary contacts and genetic admixture.
DNA, echinodermata, gene flow, marine barriers, microsatellites, phylogeography, sea stars, speciation
0305-0270
446-460
Pérez-Portela, R.
66a65395-cbe8-4201-9e9c-def7ab09ef90
Rius, M.
c4e88345-4b4e-4428-b4b2-37229155f68d
Villamor, A.
9661ea8d-b8b7-4b91-b197-9225e2ac0fa7
Pérez-Portela, R.
66a65395-cbe8-4201-9e9c-def7ab09ef90
Rius, M.
c4e88345-4b4e-4428-b4b2-37229155f68d
Villamor, A.
9661ea8d-b8b7-4b91-b197-9225e2ac0fa7

Pérez-Portela, R., Rius, M. and Villamor, A. (2017) Lineage splitting, secondary contacts and genetic admixture of a widely distributed marine invertebrate Journal of Biogeography, 44, (2), pp. 446-460. (doi:10.1111/jbi.12917).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Aim

We explore the genetic structure of the widespread starfish, Marthasterias spp., in order to: (1) identify historical causes of genetic divergence, (2) test the effect of past climatic events on populations’ demography and (3) explore main barriers to gene flow.

Location

North- and south-east Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

Methods

We amplified and sequenced three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron, and genotyped five nuclear microsatellite loci from 337 specimens. We reconstructed the phylogeny and phylogeography of Marthasterias spp. using the obtained DNA sequences, and used the microsatellite loci to explore major genetic discontinuities along the European coast.

Results

Our results suggested the existence of two allopatric species, one in the Northern Hemisphere (M. glacialis) and another in the Southern Hemisphere (Marthasterias sp.). This allopatric split could be attributed to recent changes in oceanographic circulation of the eastern Atlantic Ocean that may have acted as barrier to gene flow. Mitochondrial divergence between European lineages could be attributed to potential vicariance during Pleistocene glacial periods, but was not supported by nuclear markers, which may be indicative of recent genetic admixture. Secondary contact after glacial periods and gene flow across the Gibraltar Strait may explain this pattern. Genetic structure of M. glacialis based on nuclear markers did not show much divergence among geographical areas although most populations were significantly differentiated.

Main conclusions

The phylogeography of the widely distributed genus Marthasterias has most likely been shaped by recent changes in climate and oceanographic patterns. Major changes of ocean current patterns initially resulted in splitting between Northern and Southern Hemisphere lineages. Subsequently, glacial periods most likely enhanced vicariance of European lineages, followed by a post-glacial expansion facilitating secondary contacts and genetic admixture.

PDF Perez-Portela-et-al-R3_complete.pdf - Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only until 2 December 2017.

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 2 December 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 2 December 2016
Published date: February 2017
Keywords: DNA, echinodermata, gene flow, marine barriers, microsatellites, phylogeography, sea stars, speciation
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science, Marine Biology & Ecology

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 403545
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/403545
ISSN: 0305-0270
PURE UUID: 16d4b979-c7ce-450f-8061-00310f4db554

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 05 Dec 2016 09:57
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 17:41

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Contributors

Author: R. Pérez-Portela
Author: M. Rius
Author: A. Villamor

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