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Regional variation in lytic and lysogenic viral infection in the Southern Ocean and its contribution to biogeochemical cycling

Regional variation in lytic and lysogenic viral infection in the Southern Ocean and its contribution to biogeochemical cycling
Regional variation in lytic and lysogenic viral infection in the Southern Ocean and its contribution to biogeochemical cycling
Lytic and lysogenic viral infection was investigated throughout the Southern Ocean at sites spanning the sub-Antarctic zone, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and an Antarctic continental sea. Higher lytic virus activity was recorded in the more productive sub-Antarctic zone than in the iron-limited waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current during two transects. Reduced lytic viral activity in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current was combined with a shift toward lysogenic infection, probably resulting from the lower concentration of potential prokaryotic hosts. Superimposed on this variation, lytic viral production was lower in a transect completed in the Drake Passage in autumn (1.8 × 108 to 1.5 × 109 liter−1 day−1) than over the Greenwich Meridian during summer (5.1 × 108 to 2.0 × 1010 cells liter−1 day−1), indicating that viral activity is linked to the overall seasonal fluctuations in biotic activity. Interestingly, while prokaryotic abundance was lowest in the coastal Weddell Sea, levels of bacterial and lytic viral production (4.3 × 108 to 1.7 × 1010 cells liter−1 day−1) in this area were similar to those of the other zones. This may explain the weak relationship between the distribution of prokaryotes and chlorophyll in the Weddell Sea, as a high turnover of prokaryotic biomass may have been stimulated by the availability of substrates in the form of viral lysate. With estimated carbon and iron releases of 0.02 to 7.5 μg liter−1 day−1 and 1.5 to 175.7 pg liter−1 day−1, respectively, viral activity in the Southern Ocean is shown to be a major contributor to satisfying the elemental requirements of microbes, notably prokaryotes in the Weddell Sea and phytoplankton in the sub-Antarctic zone.
0099-2240
6741-6748
Evans, C.
222540af-62ce-4843-87ea-e73a2480f6a7
Brussaard, C. P. D.
433a0c4f-d666-4c89-a1f8-ddbd3aeafc63
Evans, C.
222540af-62ce-4843-87ea-e73a2480f6a7
Brussaard, C. P. D.
433a0c4f-d666-4c89-a1f8-ddbd3aeafc63

Evans, C. and Brussaard, C. P. D. (2012) Regional variation in lytic and lysogenic viral infection in the Southern Ocean and its contribution to biogeochemical cycling. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (18), 6741-6748. (doi:10.1128/AEM.01388-12).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Lytic and lysogenic viral infection was investigated throughout the Southern Ocean at sites spanning the sub-Antarctic zone, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and an Antarctic continental sea. Higher lytic virus activity was recorded in the more productive sub-Antarctic zone than in the iron-limited waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current during two transects. Reduced lytic viral activity in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current was combined with a shift toward lysogenic infection, probably resulting from the lower concentration of potential prokaryotic hosts. Superimposed on this variation, lytic viral production was lower in a transect completed in the Drake Passage in autumn (1.8 × 108 to 1.5 × 109 liter−1 day−1) than over the Greenwich Meridian during summer (5.1 × 108 to 2.0 × 1010 cells liter−1 day−1), indicating that viral activity is linked to the overall seasonal fluctuations in biotic activity. Interestingly, while prokaryotic abundance was lowest in the coastal Weddell Sea, levels of bacterial and lytic viral production (4.3 × 108 to 1.7 × 1010 cells liter−1 day−1) in this area were similar to those of the other zones. This may explain the weak relationship between the distribution of prokaryotes and chlorophyll in the Weddell Sea, as a high turnover of prokaryotic biomass may have been stimulated by the availability of substrates in the form of viral lysate. With estimated carbon and iron releases of 0.02 to 7.5 μg liter−1 day−1 and 1.5 to 175.7 pg liter−1 day−1, respectively, viral activity in the Southern Ocean is shown to be a major contributor to satisfying the elemental requirements of microbes, notably prokaryotes in the Weddell Sea and phytoplankton in the sub-Antarctic zone.

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More information

Published date: 15 September 2012
Organisations: Ocean Biochemistry & Ecosystems, National Oceanography Centre

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 406866
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/406866
ISSN: 0099-2240
PURE UUID: 29f770b6-4aca-4a9a-a43f-9300f1ea3574

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Date deposited: 25 Mar 2017 02:02
Last modified: 09 Nov 2021 10:46

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Contributors

Author: C. Evans
Author: C. P. D. Brussaard

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