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The enemy within? : Armenians, Jews, the Military Crises of 1915 and the Genocidal Origins of the 'Minorities Question

The enemy within? : Armenians, Jews, the Military Crises of 1915 and the Genocidal Origins of the 'Minorities Question
The enemy within? : Armenians, Jews, the Military Crises of 1915 and the Genocidal Origins of the 'Minorities Question
This chapter identifies two simultaneous First World War military crises, the one Ottoman, the other Russian, with major consequences in the way post-war nation-states began “seeing” minorities and resorting to genocidal action against them. Russian Jews and Ottoman Armenians were largely held responsible for the near-military disasters of 1915 in each case leading to mass communal deportations. While genocide was avoided in the former case, realised in the latter, both sequences acted as “military” models for how “new” states might eliminate unwanted groups through ethnic cleansing. While an alarmed international community responded with a 1919 commitment to minorities’ protection this same community’s imprimatur to mass compulsory population exchange at the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne rather suggests a post-war acceptance of programmes of violent state homogenisation.
143-173
Palgrave
Levene, Mark
4ad83ded-d4b9-40eb-a795-b2382a9a296a
Ewence, Hannah
Grady, Tim
Levene, Mark
4ad83ded-d4b9-40eb-a795-b2382a9a296a
Ewence, Hannah
Grady, Tim

Levene, Mark (2017) The enemy within? : Armenians, Jews, the Military Crises of 1915 and the Genocidal Origins of the 'Minorities Question. In, Ewence, Hannah and Grady, Tim (eds.) Minorities and the First World War: From War to Peace. Palgrave, pp. 143-173. (doi:10.1057/978-1-137-53975-5_6).

Record type: Book Section

Abstract

This chapter identifies two simultaneous First World War military crises, the one Ottoman, the other Russian, with major consequences in the way post-war nation-states began “seeing” minorities and resorting to genocidal action against them. Russian Jews and Ottoman Armenians were largely held responsible for the near-military disasters of 1915 in each case leading to mass communal deportations. While genocide was avoided in the former case, realised in the latter, both sequences acted as “military” models for how “new” states might eliminate unwanted groups through ethnic cleansing. While an alarmed international community responded with a 1919 commitment to minorities’ protection this same community’s imprimatur to mass compulsory population exchange at the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne rather suggests a post-war acceptance of programmes of violent state homogenisation.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 31 July 2017
Published date: 2017

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Local EPrints ID: 412119
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/412119
PURE UUID: da1888c8-8046-47ae-bbdb-474183af6ef7

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Date deposited: 11 Jul 2017 16:31
Last modified: 25 Feb 2021 17:44

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