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The effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on metal toxicity: insights into toxicity in the deep sea

The effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on metal toxicity: insights into toxicity in the deep sea
The effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on metal toxicity: insights into toxicity in the deep sea
Mineral prospecting in the deep sea is increasing, promoting concern regarding potential ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Technological difficulties in assessing toxicity in deep-sea species has promoted interest in developing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, it is unclear how the low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure prevalent in the deep sea affect toxicity, and whether adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions moderates any effects of these factors. To address these uncertainties we assessed the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on lethal and sublethal (respiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activity) toxicity in acute (96 h) copper and cadmium exposures, using the shallow-water ecophysiological model organism Palaemon varians. Low temperature reduced toxicity in both metals, but reduced cadmium toxicity significantly more. In contrast, elevated hydrostatic pressure increased copper toxicity, but did not affect cadmium toxicity. The synergistic interaction between copper and cadmium was not affected by low temperature, but high hydrostatic pressure significantly enhanced the synergism. Differential environmental effects on toxicity suggest different mechanisms of action for copper and cadmium, and highlight that mechanistic understanding of toxicity is fundamental to predicting environmental effects on toxicity. Although results infer that sensitivity to toxicants differs across biogeographic ranges, shallow-water species may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea species, dependent on adaptation to habitats with similar environmental variability.
0013-936X
10222–10231
Brown, Alastair
909f34db-bc9c-403f-ba8f-31aee1c00161
Thatje, Sven
f1011fe3-1048-40c0-97c1-e93b796e6533
Hauton, Christopher
7706f6ba-4497-42b2-8c6d-00df81676331
Brown, Alastair
909f34db-bc9c-403f-ba8f-31aee1c00161
Thatje, Sven
f1011fe3-1048-40c0-97c1-e93b796e6533
Hauton, Christopher
7706f6ba-4497-42b2-8c6d-00df81676331

Brown, Alastair, Thatje, Sven and Hauton, Christopher (2017) The effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on metal toxicity: insights into toxicity in the deep sea. Environmental Science & Technology, 51 (17), 10222–10231. (doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b02988).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Mineral prospecting in the deep sea is increasing, promoting concern regarding potential ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Technological difficulties in assessing toxicity in deep-sea species has promoted interest in developing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, it is unclear how the low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure prevalent in the deep sea affect toxicity, and whether adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions moderates any effects of these factors. To address these uncertainties we assessed the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on lethal and sublethal (respiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activity) toxicity in acute (96 h) copper and cadmium exposures, using the shallow-water ecophysiological model organism Palaemon varians. Low temperature reduced toxicity in both metals, but reduced cadmium toxicity significantly more. In contrast, elevated hydrostatic pressure increased copper toxicity, but did not affect cadmium toxicity. The synergistic interaction between copper and cadmium was not affected by low temperature, but high hydrostatic pressure significantly enhanced the synergism. Differential environmental effects on toxicity suggest different mechanisms of action for copper and cadmium, and highlight that mechanistic understanding of toxicity is fundamental to predicting environmental effects on toxicity. Although results infer that sensitivity to toxicants differs across biogeographic ranges, shallow-water species may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea species, dependent on adaptation to habitats with similar environmental variability.

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Accepted/In Press date: 14 July 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 14 July 2017
Published date: 5 September 2017

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 413179
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/413179
ISSN: 0013-936X
PURE UUID: 4353574b-895d-4171-95fa-9861f57f3336
ORCID for Christopher Hauton: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2313-4226

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Date deposited: 17 Aug 2017 16:30
Last modified: 14 Mar 2019 05:39

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