The University of Southampton
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Hitomi constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus galaxy cluster

Hitomi constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus galaxy cluster
Hitomi constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus galaxy cluster
High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentified E≈ 3.5 {keV} emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. The emission line expected for Perseus based on the XMM-Newton signal from the large cluster sample under the dark matter decay scenario is too faint to be detectable in the Hitomi data. However, the previously reported 3.5 keV flux from Perseus was anomalously high compared to the sample-based prediction. We find no unidentified line at the reported high flux level. Taking into account the XMM measurement uncertainties for this region, the inconsistency with Hitomi is at a 99% significance for a broad dark matter line and at 99.7% for a narrow line from the gas. We do not find anomalously high fluxes of the nearby faint K line or the Ar satellite line that were proposed as explanations for the earlier 3.5 keV detections. We do find a hint of a broad excess near the energies of high-n transitions of S xvi (E≃ 3.44 {keV} rest-frame)—a possible signature of charge exchange in the molecular nebula and another proposed explanation for the unidentified line. While its energy is consistent with XMM pn detections, it is unlikely to explain the MOS signal. A confirmation of this interesting feature has to wait for a more sensitive observation with a future calorimeter experiment.
dark matter, galaxies: clusters: individual: A426, galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium, X-rays: galaxies: clusters
2041-8205
1-9
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Hitomi Collaboration
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Zoghbi, A.
06e09477-a459-4c81-b7fb-cafeb08b69f4

Aharonian, F.A., Akamatsu, H., Akimoto, F., Allen, S.W., Angelini, L., Arnaud, K.A., Audard, M., Awaki, H., Axelsson, M., Bamba, A., Bautz, M.W., Blandford, R.D., Bulbul, E., Brenneman, L.W., Brown, G.V., Cackett, E.M., Chernyakova, M., Chiao, M.P., Coppi, P., Costantini, E., de Plaa, J., den Herder, J.-W., Done, C., Dotani, T., Ebisawa, K., Eckart, M.E., Enoto, T., Ezoe, Y., Fabian, A.C., Ferrigno, C., Foster, A.R., Fujimoto, R., Fukazawa, Y., Furuzawa, A., Galeazzi, M., Gallo, L.C., Gandhi, P., Giustini, M., Goldwurm, A., Gu, L., Guainazzi, M., Haba, Y., Hagino, K., Hamaguchi, K., Harrus, I., Hatsukade, I., Hayashi, K., Hayashi, T., Hayashida, K., Hiraga, J., Hornschemeier, A.E., Hoshino, A., Hughes, J.P., Ichinohe, Y., Iizuka, R., Inoue, H., Inoue, S., Inoue, Y., Ishibashi, K., Ishida, M., Ishikawa, K., Ishisaki, Y., Itoh, M., Iwai, M., Iyomoto, N., Kaastra, J.S., Kallman, T., Kamae, T., Kara, E., Kataoka, J., Katsuda, S., Katsuta, J., Kawaharada, M., Kawai, N., Kelley, R.L., Khangulyan, D., Kilbourne, C.A., King, A.L., Kitaguchi, T., Kitamoto, S., Kitayama, T., Kohmura, T., Kokubun, M., Koyama, S., Koyama, K., Kretschmar, P., Krimm, H.A., Kubota, A., Kunieda, H., Laurent, P., Lebrun, F., Lee, S.-H., Leutenegger, M.A., Limousin, O., Loewenstein, M., Long, K.S., Lumb, D.H., Madejski, G.M., Maeda, Y., Maier, D., Makishima, K., Markevitch, M., Matsumoto, H., Matsushita, K., McCammon, D., McNamara, B.R., Mehdipour, M., Miller, E.D., Miller, J.M., Mineshige, S., Mitsuda, K., Mitsuishi, I., Miyazawa, T., Mizuno, T., Mori, H., Mori, K., Moseley, H., Mukai, K., Murakami, H., Murakami, T., Mushotzky, R.F., Nakagawa, T., Nakajima, H., Nakamori, T., Nakano, T., Nakashima, S., Nakazawa, K., Nobukawa, K., Nobukawa, M., Noda, H., Nomachi, M., O' Dell, S.L., Odaka, H., Ohashi, T., Ohno, M., Okajima, T., Ota, N., Ozaki, M., Paerels, F., Paltani, S., Parmar, A., Petre, R., Pinto, C., Pohl, M., Porter, F.S., Pottschmidt, K., Ramsey, B. D., Reynolds, C.S., Russell, H.R., Safi-Harb, S., Saito, S., Sakai, K., Sameshima, H., Sasaki, T., Sato, G., Sato, K., Sato, R., Sawada, M., Schartel, N., Serlemitsos, P.J., Seta, H., Shidatsu, M., Simionescu, A., Smith, R.K., Soong, Y., Stawarz, Ł., Sugawara, Y., Sugita, S., Szymkowiak, A.E., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Takeda, S., Takei, Y., Tamagawa, T., Tamura, K., Tamura, T., Tanaka, T., Tanaka, Yasuo, Tanaka, Yasuyuki, Tashiro, M., Tawara, Y., Terada, Y., Terashima, Y., Tombesi, F., Tomida, H., Tsuboi, Y., Tsujimoto, M., Tsunemi, H., Tsuru, T., Uchida, H., Uchiyama, H., Uchiyama, Y., Ueda, S., Ueda, Y., Ueno, S., Uno, S., Urry, C. M., Ursino, E., de Vries, C.P., Watanabe, S., Werner, N., Wik, D.R., Wilkins, D.R., Williams, B.J., Yamada, S., Yamaguchi, H., Yamaoka, K., Yamasaki, N.Y., Yamauchi, M., Yamauchi, S., Yaqoob, T., Yatsu, Y., Yonetoku, D., Yoshida, A., Zhuravleva, I. and Zoghbi, A. , Hitomi Collaboration (2017) Hitomi constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus galaxy cluster. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 837 (1), 1-9. (doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa61fa).

Record type: Article

Abstract

High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentified E≈ 3.5 {keV} emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. The emission line expected for Perseus based on the XMM-Newton signal from the large cluster sample under the dark matter decay scenario is too faint to be detectable in the Hitomi data. However, the previously reported 3.5 keV flux from Perseus was anomalously high compared to the sample-based prediction. We find no unidentified line at the reported high flux level. Taking into account the XMM measurement uncertainties for this region, the inconsistency with Hitomi is at a 99% significance for a broad dark matter line and at 99.7% for a narrow line from the gas. We do not find anomalously high fluxes of the nearby faint K line or the Ar satellite line that were proposed as explanations for the earlier 3.5 keV detections. We do find a hint of a broad excess near the energies of high-n transitions of S xvi (E≃ 3.44 {keV} rest-frame)—a possible signature of charge exchange in the molecular nebula and another proposed explanation for the unidentified line. While its energy is consistent with XMM pn detections, it is unlikely to explain the MOS signal. A confirmation of this interesting feature has to wait for a more sensitive observation with a future calorimeter experiment.

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Accepted/In Press date: 19 February 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 1 March 2017
Published date: 3 March 2017
Keywords: dark matter, galaxies: clusters: individual: A426, galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium, X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 413404
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/413404
ISSN: 2041-8205
PURE UUID: b328a7f1-2840-44f7-9145-f28190f4e330
ORCID for P. Gandhi: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3105-2615

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Date deposited: 23 Aug 2017 16:32
Last modified: 12 Apr 2018 16:31

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Contributors

Author: F.A. Aharonian
Author: H. Akamatsu
Author: F. Akimoto
Author: S.W. Allen
Author: L. Angelini
Author: K.A. Arnaud
Author: M. Audard
Author: H. Awaki
Author: M. Axelsson
Author: A. Bamba
Author: M.W. Bautz
Author: R.D. Blandford
Author: E. Bulbul
Author: L.W. Brenneman
Author: G.V. Brown
Author: E.M. Cackett
Author: M. Chernyakova
Author: M.P. Chiao
Author: P. Coppi
Author: E. Costantini
Author: J. de Plaa
Author: J.-W. den Herder
Author: C. Done
Author: T. Dotani
Author: K. Ebisawa
Author: M.E. Eckart
Author: T. Enoto
Author: Y. Ezoe
Author: A.C. Fabian
Author: C. Ferrigno
Author: A.R. Foster
Author: R. Fujimoto
Author: Y. Fukazawa
Author: A. Furuzawa
Author: M. Galeazzi
Author: L.C. Gallo
Author: P. Gandhi ORCID iD
Author: M. Giustini
Author: A. Goldwurm
Author: L. Gu
Author: M. Guainazzi
Author: Y. Haba
Author: K. Hagino
Author: K. Hamaguchi
Author: I. Harrus
Author: I. Hatsukade
Author: K. Hayashi
Author: T. Hayashi
Author: K. Hayashida
Author: J. Hiraga
Author: A.E. Hornschemeier
Author: A. Hoshino
Author: J.P. Hughes
Author: Y. Ichinohe
Author: R. Iizuka
Author: H. Inoue
Author: S. Inoue
Author: Y. Inoue
Author: K. Ishibashi
Author: M. Ishida
Author: K. Ishikawa
Author: Y. Ishisaki
Author: M. Itoh
Author: M. Iwai
Author: N. Iyomoto
Author: J.S. Kaastra
Author: T. Kallman
Author: T. Kamae
Author: E. Kara
Author: J. Kataoka
Author: S. Katsuda
Author: J. Katsuta
Author: M. Kawaharada
Author: N. Kawai
Author: R.L. Kelley
Author: D. Khangulyan
Author: C.A. Kilbourne
Author: A.L. King
Author: T. Kitaguchi
Author: S. Kitamoto
Author: T. Kitayama
Author: T. Kohmura
Author: M. Kokubun
Author: S. Koyama
Author: K. Koyama
Author: P. Kretschmar
Author: H.A. Krimm
Author: A. Kubota
Author: H. Kunieda
Author: P. Laurent
Author: F. Lebrun
Author: S.-H. Lee
Author: M.A. Leutenegger
Author: O. Limousin
Author: M. Loewenstein
Author: K.S. Long
Author: D.H. Lumb
Author: G.M. Madejski
Author: Y. Maeda
Author: D. Maier
Author: K. Makishima
Author: M. Markevitch
Author: H. Matsumoto
Author: K. Matsushita
Author: D. McCammon
Author: B.R. McNamara
Author: M. Mehdipour
Author: E.D. Miller
Author: J.M. Miller
Author: S. Mineshige
Author: K. Mitsuda
Author: I. Mitsuishi
Author: T. Miyazawa
Author: T. Mizuno
Author: H. Mori
Author: K. Mori
Author: H. Moseley
Author: K. Mukai
Author: H. Murakami
Author: T. Murakami
Author: R.F. Mushotzky
Author: T. Nakagawa
Author: H. Nakajima
Author: T. Nakamori
Author: T. Nakano
Author: S. Nakashima
Author: K. Nakazawa
Author: K. Nobukawa
Author: M. Nobukawa
Author: H. Noda
Author: M. Nomachi
Author: S.L. O' Dell
Author: H. Odaka
Author: T. Ohashi
Author: M. Ohno
Author: T. Okajima
Author: N. Ota
Author: M. Ozaki
Author: F. Paerels
Author: S. Paltani
Author: A. Parmar
Author: R. Petre
Author: C. Pinto
Author: M. Pohl
Author: F.S. Porter
Author: K. Pottschmidt
Author: B. D. Ramsey
Author: C.S. Reynolds
Author: H.R. Russell
Author: S. Safi-Harb
Author: S. Saito
Author: K. Sakai
Author: H. Sameshima
Author: T. Sasaki
Author: G. Sato
Author: K. Sato
Author: R. Sato
Author: M. Sawada
Author: N. Schartel
Author: P.J. Serlemitsos
Author: H. Seta
Author: M. Shidatsu
Author: A. Simionescu
Author: R.K. Smith
Author: Y. Soong
Author: Ł. Stawarz
Author: Y. Sugawara
Author: S. Sugita
Author: A.E. Szymkowiak
Author: H. Tajima
Author: H. Takahashi
Author: T. Takahashi
Author: S. Takeda
Author: Y. Takei
Author: T. Tamagawa
Author: K. Tamura
Author: T. Tamura
Author: T. Tanaka
Author: Yasuo Tanaka
Author: Yasuyuki Tanaka
Author: M. Tashiro
Author: Y. Tawara
Author: Y. Terada
Author: Y. Terashima
Author: F. Tombesi
Author: H. Tomida
Author: Y. Tsuboi
Author: M. Tsujimoto
Author: H. Tsunemi
Author: T. Tsuru
Author: H. Uchida
Author: H. Uchiyama
Author: Y. Uchiyama
Author: S. Ueda
Author: Y. Ueda
Author: S. Ueno
Author: S. Uno
Author: C. M. Urry
Author: E. Ursino
Author: C.P. de Vries
Author: S. Watanabe
Author: N. Werner
Author: D.R. Wik
Author: D.R. Wilkins
Author: B.J. Williams
Author: S. Yamada
Author: H. Yamaguchi
Author: K. Yamaoka
Author: N.Y. Yamasaki
Author: M. Yamauchi
Author: S. Yamauchi
Author: T. Yaqoob
Author: Y. Yatsu
Author: D. Yonetoku
Author: A. Yoshida
Author: I. Zhuravleva
Author: A. Zoghbi

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