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Maternal hyperglycemia in singleton pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization may be modified by first-trimester body mass index

Maternal hyperglycemia in singleton pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization may be modified by first-trimester body mass index
Maternal hyperglycemia in singleton pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization may be modified by first-trimester body mass index
STUDY QUESTION:Does IVF independently increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is this increase in risk modified by maternal body mass index?SUMMARY ANSWER:IVF appears to be an independent risk factor for GDM and elevated blood glucose levels in overweight women (BMI > 25 kg/m2).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:IVF has been associated with increased risk of GDM, but most previous studies did not adequately assess confounding or effect modification by other risk factors.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:Cross-sectional study using data from 1089 women with singleton pregnancies who participated in a Singaporean birth cohort study (GUSTO) and received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 26–28 weeks gestation.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:A total of 1089 women (n = 1013 conceived spontaneously, n = 76 conceived through IVF) with singleton pregnancies received a 75 g OGTT at 26–28 weeks gestation. Fasting and 2 h postprandial blood glucose levels were assayed. World Health Organization criteria (1999) standard criteria were used to classify GDM: ≥7.0 mmol/L for fasting and/or ≥7.8 mmol/L for 2-h postprandial plasma glucose levels, which was the clinical guideline in use during the study.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:IVF pregnancies had nearly double the odds of GDM (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.03–3.26) and elevated fasting (mean difference = 0.12 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.00–0.24) and OGTT 2-h blood glucose levels (mean difference = 0.64 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.27–1.01), after adjusting for commonly recognized risk factors for GDM. After stratification by first-trimester BMI, these increased risks of GDM (OR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.44–8.72) and elevated fasting (mean difference = 0.39 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.13–0.65) and 2-h blood (mean difference = 1.24 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.56–1.91) glucose levels were significant only in the IVF group who is also overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2).LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION:One limitation of our study is the absence of a 1 h post-OGTT plasma glucose sample, as we were using the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria (the clinical guideline in Singapore) at the time of our study, instead of the revised 2013 WHO diagnostic criteria. Our cohort may not be representative of the general Singapore obstetric population, although participants were recruited from the two largest maternity hospitals in the country and include both private and subsidized patients.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:IVF appears to be an independent risk factor for GDM and elevated blood glucose levels in overweight women. Our findings reinforce the need to advise overweight or obese women contemplating IVF to lose weight before the procedure to reduce their risk of GDM and hyperglycemia-related adverse outcomes arising therefrom. In settings where universal GDM screening is not routine, overweight or obese women who conceive by IVF should be screened.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S):This research was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Translational and Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Program and administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore (NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008; NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014). Additional funding was provided by the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR). K.M.G. and Y.S.C. have received lecture fees from Nestle Nutrition Institute and Danone, respectively. K.M.G., Y.S.C. and S.Y.C. are part of an academic consortium that has received research funding from Abbott Nutrition, Nestec and Danone. The other authors have nothing to disclose. The other authors have nothing to disclose.
1941-1947
Cai, S.
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Natarajan, P.
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Chan, J.K.Y.
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Wong, P.C.
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Tan, K.H.
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Godfrey, K.M.
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Gluckman, P.D.
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Shek, L.P.C.
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Yap, F.
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Kramer, M.S.
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Chan, S.Y.
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Chong, Y.S.
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Cai, S.
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Natarajan, P.
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Chan, J.K.Y.
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Wong, P.C.
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Tan, K.H.
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Godfrey, K.M.
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Gluckman, P.D.
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Shek, L.P.C.
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Yap, F.
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Kramer, M.S.
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Chan, S.Y.
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Chong, Y.S.
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Cai, S., Natarajan, P., Chan, J.K.Y., Wong, P.C., Tan, K.H., Godfrey, K.M., Gluckman, P.D., Shek, L.P.C., Yap, F., Kramer, M.S., Chan, S.Y. and Chong, Y.S. (2017) Maternal hyperglycemia in singleton pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization may be modified by first-trimester body mass index. Human Reproduction, 32 (9), 1941-1947. (doi:10.1093/humrep/dex243).

Record type: Article

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION:Does IVF independently increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is this increase in risk modified by maternal body mass index?SUMMARY ANSWER:IVF appears to be an independent risk factor for GDM and elevated blood glucose levels in overweight women (BMI > 25 kg/m2).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:IVF has been associated with increased risk of GDM, but most previous studies did not adequately assess confounding or effect modification by other risk factors.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:Cross-sectional study using data from 1089 women with singleton pregnancies who participated in a Singaporean birth cohort study (GUSTO) and received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 26–28 weeks gestation.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:A total of 1089 women (n = 1013 conceived spontaneously, n = 76 conceived through IVF) with singleton pregnancies received a 75 g OGTT at 26–28 weeks gestation. Fasting and 2 h postprandial blood glucose levels were assayed. World Health Organization criteria (1999) standard criteria were used to classify GDM: ≥7.0 mmol/L for fasting and/or ≥7.8 mmol/L for 2-h postprandial plasma glucose levels, which was the clinical guideline in use during the study.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:IVF pregnancies had nearly double the odds of GDM (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.03–3.26) and elevated fasting (mean difference = 0.12 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.00–0.24) and OGTT 2-h blood glucose levels (mean difference = 0.64 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.27–1.01), after adjusting for commonly recognized risk factors for GDM. After stratification by first-trimester BMI, these increased risks of GDM (OR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.44–8.72) and elevated fasting (mean difference = 0.39 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.13–0.65) and 2-h blood (mean difference = 1.24 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.56–1.91) glucose levels were significant only in the IVF group who is also overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2).LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION:One limitation of our study is the absence of a 1 h post-OGTT plasma glucose sample, as we were using the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria (the clinical guideline in Singapore) at the time of our study, instead of the revised 2013 WHO diagnostic criteria. Our cohort may not be representative of the general Singapore obstetric population, although participants were recruited from the two largest maternity hospitals in the country and include both private and subsidized patients.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:IVF appears to be an independent risk factor for GDM and elevated blood glucose levels in overweight women. Our findings reinforce the need to advise overweight or obese women contemplating IVF to lose weight before the procedure to reduce their risk of GDM and hyperglycemia-related adverse outcomes arising therefrom. In settings where universal GDM screening is not routine, overweight or obese women who conceive by IVF should be screened.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S):This research was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Translational and Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Program and administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore (NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008; NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014). Additional funding was provided by the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR). K.M.G. and Y.S.C. have received lecture fees from Nestle Nutrition Institute and Danone, respectively. K.M.G., Y.S.C. and S.Y.C. are part of an academic consortium that has received research funding from Abbott Nutrition, Nestec and Danone. The other authors have nothing to disclose. The other authors have nothing to disclose.

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Accepted/In Press date: 23 June 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 12 July 2017
Published date: September 2017

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 413438
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/413438
PURE UUID: d53de944-d9ec-4999-a6d9-ea4c06efaed6
ORCID for K.M. Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

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Date deposited: 24 Aug 2017 16:30
Last modified: 15 Aug 2019 04:40

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Contributors

Author: S. Cai
Author: P. Natarajan
Author: J.K.Y. Chan
Author: P.C. Wong
Author: K.H. Tan
Author: K.M. Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: P.D. Gluckman
Author: L.P.C. Shek
Author: F. Yap
Author: M.S. Kramer
Author: S.Y. Chan
Author: Y.S. Chong

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