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Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545 Swedish nursing home residents

Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545 Swedish nursing home residents
Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545 Swedish nursing home residents

BACKGROUND: Residents of nursing homes may have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations. Associations between vitamin D and cognitive performance, dementia and susceptibility to infections are not clearly established. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to identify associated factors among residents of nursing homes for elderly.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study blood samples for analysis of 25OHD were collected from all participating residents of Swedish nursing homes for the elderly from January to March 2012.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA: dementia too severe to collect a blood test, terminally ill or refusing participation.

OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum 25OHD concentrations. Logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 25 nmol/L).

RESULTS: Blood samples were obtained from 545 of 901 residents of 22 nursing homes. Mean age 86 years (SD 6.9), 68% were women. Prevalence of vitamin D supplementation 17%, dementia 55%, lack of appetite ≥3 months 45% and any antibiotic treatment during the last 6 months 30%. Serum 25OHD concentrations: mean 34 nmol/L (SD 21, median 27, range 4-125), 82% (448/545) had 25OHD < 50 nmol/L and 41% (224/545) had 25OHD < 25 nmol/L. Adjusted OR (95% CI; p-value) for possible predictors of vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 25 nmol/L): vitamin D supplementation 0.075 (0.031-0.18; p < 0.001), lack of appetite ≥3 months 0.75 (0.50-1.1; p = 0.15), hours outdoors/week 0.99 (0.96-1.0; p = 0.62), Fitzpatrick skin phototype (4-6) 0.69 (0.44-1.1; p = 0.12); dementia 2.3 (1.5-3.4; p < 0.001) and antibiotics last 6 months 1.6 (1.1-2.6; p < 0.029), adjusted for age and gender.

CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and strongly associated with dementia. Regardless of causality or not, it is important to be alert for vitamin D deficiency in nursing homes residents with dementia. As expected vitamin D supplementation was associated with less vitamin D deficiency, however lack of appetite, staying outdoors and skin phototype were not significant predictors. Antibiotic treatments during the last 6 months were associated with vitamin D deficiency, potentially supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency is associated with infections.

Journal Article
1471-2318
229
Arnljots, Rebeka
04cc921f-0233-4808-9b51-2cec83161c3b
Thorn, Jörgen
17a9e475-b6c1-40a2-9982-d169d94eca8c
Elm, Marie
8018a47b-3e1d-411e-830e-e30c2a936ad7
Moore, Michael
1be81dad-7120-45f0-bbed-f3b0cc0cfe99
Sundvall, Pär-Daniel
261d1590-e63e-4617-b7cd-956b081614b0
Arnljots, Rebeka, Thorn, Jörgen, Elm, Marie, Moore, Michael and Sundvall, Pär-Daniel (2017) Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545 Swedish nursing home residents BMC Geriatrics, 17, (1), p. 229. (doi:10.1186/s12877-017-0622-1).

Arnljots, Rebeka, Thorn, Jörgen, Elm, Marie, Moore, Michael and Sundvall, Pär-Daniel (2017) Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and associated with dementia: a cross sectional study of 545 Swedish nursing home residents BMC Geriatrics, 17, (1), p. 229. (doi:10.1186/s12877-017-0622-1).

Record type: Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Residents of nursing homes may have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations. Associations between vitamin D and cognitive performance, dementia and susceptibility to infections are not clearly established. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to identify associated factors among residents of nursing homes for elderly.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study blood samples for analysis of 25OHD were collected from all participating residents of Swedish nursing homes for the elderly from January to March 2012.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA: dementia too severe to collect a blood test, terminally ill or refusing participation.

OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum 25OHD concentrations. Logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 25 nmol/L).

RESULTS: Blood samples were obtained from 545 of 901 residents of 22 nursing homes. Mean age 86 years (SD 6.9), 68% were women. Prevalence of vitamin D supplementation 17%, dementia 55%, lack of appetite ≥3 months 45% and any antibiotic treatment during the last 6 months 30%. Serum 25OHD concentrations: mean 34 nmol/L (SD 21, median 27, range 4-125), 82% (448/545) had 25OHD < 50 nmol/L and 41% (224/545) had 25OHD < 25 nmol/L. Adjusted OR (95% CI; p-value) for possible predictors of vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 25 nmol/L): vitamin D supplementation 0.075 (0.031-0.18; p < 0.001), lack of appetite ≥3 months 0.75 (0.50-1.1; p = 0.15), hours outdoors/week 0.99 (0.96-1.0; p = 0.62), Fitzpatrick skin phototype (4-6) 0.69 (0.44-1.1; p = 0.12); dementia 2.3 (1.5-3.4; p < 0.001) and antibiotics last 6 months 1.6 (1.1-2.6; p < 0.029), adjusted for age and gender.

CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and strongly associated with dementia. Regardless of causality or not, it is important to be alert for vitamin D deficiency in nursing homes residents with dementia. As expected vitamin D supplementation was associated with less vitamin D deficiency, however lack of appetite, staying outdoors and skin phototype were not significant predictors. Antibiotic treatments during the last 6 months were associated with vitamin D deficiency, potentially supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency is associated with infections.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 2 October 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 10 October 2017
Keywords: Journal Article

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 415054
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/415054
ISSN: 1471-2318
PURE UUID: 0917fd63-d860-4b5f-b9e8-a9cd260f7521
ORCID for Michael Moore: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5127-4509

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Date deposited: 24 Oct 2017 16:30
Last modified: 01 Nov 2017 17:30

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Contributors

Author: Rebeka Arnljots
Author: Jörgen Thorn
Author: Marie Elm
Author: Michael Moore ORCID iD
Author: Pär-Daniel Sundvall

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