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A review of screen-printed silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference electrodes potentially suitable for environmental potentiometric sensors

A review of screen-printed silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference electrodes potentially suitable for environmental potentiometric sensors
A review of screen-printed silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference electrodes potentially suitable for environmental potentiometric sensors
The screen-printed (SP), reference electrode (RE) has been shown to be a crucial element of potentiometric sensors but it is also the stumbling block for reliable and accurate SP sensors. The easiest, most common and most environmentally friendly, type of RE is the Silver/Silver Chloride (Ag/AgCl) RE. Unfortunately, until now the only reliable RE of this kind is the conventional, liquid or gel-filled type. However, for most environmental and soil applications the use of the conventional RE is not an option, which raises the demand for a robust, rugged and low-cost version to replace the conventional RE. This paper presents a review of the various attempts to produce reliable, SP, Ag/AgCl REs, and explain why almost all of them never reach the commercialisation stage. The paper provides an overview of the main challenges that need to be overcome, details of the electrode’s construction, an analytical comparison of their performance in terms of chloride susceptibility, cross-sensitivity and lifetime, and their suitability in different applications depending on their performance characteristics.
0924-4247
106-120
Sophocleous, Marios
908541f4-d6e1-4fdf-9423-fddc2b12bcbf
Atkinson, John K.
5e9729b2-0e1f-400d-a889-c74f6390ea58
Sophocleous, Marios
908541f4-d6e1-4fdf-9423-fddc2b12bcbf
Atkinson, John K.
5e9729b2-0e1f-400d-a889-c74f6390ea58

Sophocleous, Marios and Atkinson, John K. (2017) A review of screen-printed silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference electrodes potentially suitable for environmental potentiometric sensors. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 267, 106-120. (doi:10.1016/j.sna.2017.10.013).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The screen-printed (SP), reference electrode (RE) has been shown to be a crucial element of potentiometric sensors but it is also the stumbling block for reliable and accurate SP sensors. The easiest, most common and most environmentally friendly, type of RE is the Silver/Silver Chloride (Ag/AgCl) RE. Unfortunately, until now the only reliable RE of this kind is the conventional, liquid or gel-filled type. However, for most environmental and soil applications the use of the conventional RE is not an option, which raises the demand for a robust, rugged and low-cost version to replace the conventional RE. This paper presents a review of the various attempts to produce reliable, SP, Ag/AgCl REs, and explain why almost all of them never reach the commercialisation stage. The paper provides an overview of the main challenges that need to be overcome, details of the electrode’s construction, an analytical comparison of their performance in terms of chloride susceptibility, cross-sensitivity and lifetime, and their suitability in different applications depending on their performance characteristics.

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Reference electrodes - review paper with Revisions - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 5 October 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 7 October 2017
Published date: 1 November 2017

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 415913
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/415913
ISSN: 0924-4247
PURE UUID: 354cbcb2-3da2-464b-8917-993155089eeb
ORCID for John K. Atkinson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3411-8034

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Date deposited: 28 Nov 2017 17:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 04:15

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