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Altered expression of brain proteinase-activated receptor-2, trypsin-2 and serpin proteinase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease

Altered expression of brain proteinase-activated receptor-2, trypsin-2 and serpin proteinase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease
Altered expression of brain proteinase-activated receptor-2, trypsin-2 and serpin proteinase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease

Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative disorders, but the factors involved in the inflammatory process are not completely understood. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expression in brain is increased in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but the status of PAR2 in Parkinson's disease is unknown. This study examined expression of PAR2 and endogenous proteinase activators (trypsin-2, mast cell tryptase) and proteinase inhibitors (serpin-A5, serpin-A13) in areas vulnerable and resistant to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease at different Braak α-synuclein stages of the disease in post-mortem brain. In normal aged brain, expression of PAR-2, trypsin-2, and serpin-A5 and serpin-A13 was found in neurons and microglia, and alterations in the amount of immunoreactivity for these proteins were found in some brain regions. Namely, there was a decrease in neurons positive for serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus, and serpin-A13 expression was reduced in the locus coeruleus and primary motor cortex, while expression of PAR2, trypsin-2 and both serpins was reduced in neurons within the substantia nigra. There was an increased number of microglia that expressed serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and elevated numbers of microglia that expressed serpin-A13 in the substantia nigra of late Parkinson's disease cases. The number of microglia that expressed trypsin-2 increased in primary motor cortex of incidental Lewy body disease cases. Analysis of Parkinson's disease cases alone indicated that serpin-A5 and serpin-A13, and trypsin-2 expression in midbrain and cerebral cortex was different in cases with a high incidence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and psychosis compared to those with low levels of these treatment-induced side effects. This study showed that there was altered expression in brain of PAR2 and some proteins that can control its function in Parkinson's disease. Given the role of PAR2 in neuroinflammation, drugs that mitigate these changes may be neuroprotective when administered to patients with Parkinson's disease.

Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Brain, Case-Control Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Microglia, Middle Aged, Neurons, Organ Specificity, Parkinson Disease, Protein C Inhibitor, Receptor, PAR-2, Serpins, Trypsin, Trypsinogen, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
0895-8696
48-62
Hurley, Michael J.
07b0180f-8e32-4ce1-8185-e046a42ef15a
Durrenberger, Pascal F.
adac22d6-9d70-4559-a8c8-82bad3f3c25a
Gentleman, Steve M.
d28d75f7-05cf-4bca-8f3a-db15ce846466
Walls, Andrew F.
aaa7e455-0562-4b4c-94f5-ec29c74b1bfe
Dexter, David T.
a3cacf9a-bf1f-404a-9eca-66e74e27e855
Hurley, Michael J.
07b0180f-8e32-4ce1-8185-e046a42ef15a
Durrenberger, Pascal F.
adac22d6-9d70-4559-a8c8-82bad3f3c25a
Gentleman, Steve M.
d28d75f7-05cf-4bca-8f3a-db15ce846466
Walls, Andrew F.
aaa7e455-0562-4b4c-94f5-ec29c74b1bfe
Dexter, David T.
a3cacf9a-bf1f-404a-9eca-66e74e27e855

Hurley, Michael J., Durrenberger, Pascal F., Gentleman, Steve M., Walls, Andrew F. and Dexter, David T. (2015) Altered expression of brain proteinase-activated receptor-2, trypsin-2 and serpin proteinase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 57 (1), 48-62. (doi:10.1007/s12031-015-0576-8).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative disorders, but the factors involved in the inflammatory process are not completely understood. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expression in brain is increased in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but the status of PAR2 in Parkinson's disease is unknown. This study examined expression of PAR2 and endogenous proteinase activators (trypsin-2, mast cell tryptase) and proteinase inhibitors (serpin-A5, serpin-A13) in areas vulnerable and resistant to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease at different Braak α-synuclein stages of the disease in post-mortem brain. In normal aged brain, expression of PAR-2, trypsin-2, and serpin-A5 and serpin-A13 was found in neurons and microglia, and alterations in the amount of immunoreactivity for these proteins were found in some brain regions. Namely, there was a decrease in neurons positive for serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus, and serpin-A13 expression was reduced in the locus coeruleus and primary motor cortex, while expression of PAR2, trypsin-2 and both serpins was reduced in neurons within the substantia nigra. There was an increased number of microglia that expressed serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and elevated numbers of microglia that expressed serpin-A13 in the substantia nigra of late Parkinson's disease cases. The number of microglia that expressed trypsin-2 increased in primary motor cortex of incidental Lewy body disease cases. Analysis of Parkinson's disease cases alone indicated that serpin-A5 and serpin-A13, and trypsin-2 expression in midbrain and cerebral cortex was different in cases with a high incidence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and psychosis compared to those with low levels of these treatment-induced side effects. This study showed that there was altered expression in brain of PAR2 and some proteins that can control its function in Parkinson's disease. Given the role of PAR2 in neuroinflammation, drugs that mitigate these changes may be neuroprotective when administered to patients with Parkinson's disease.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 17 May 2015
Published date: September 2015
Keywords: Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Brain, Case-Control Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Microglia, Middle Aged, Neurons, Organ Specificity, Parkinson Disease, Protein C Inhibitor, Receptor, PAR-2, Serpins, Trypsin, Trypsinogen, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 416228
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/416228
ISSN: 0895-8696
PURE UUID: 6d717a5b-66cd-4a03-9ae5-049e36d8be59

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Date deposited: 08 Dec 2017 17:30
Last modified: 07 Aug 2018 16:32

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