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Three decades of deep water mass investigation in the Weddell Sea (1984–2014): temporal variability and changes

Three decades of deep water mass investigation in the Weddell Sea (1984–2014): temporal variability and changes
Three decades of deep water mass investigation in the Weddell Sea (1984–2014): temporal variability and changes
The role of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in changing the ocean circulation and controlling climate variability is widely known. However, a comprehensive understanding of the relative contribution and variability of Antarctic regional deep water mass varieties that form AABW is still lacking. Using a high-quality dataset comprising three decades of observational shipboard surveys in the Weddell Sea (1984–2014), we updated the structure, composition and hydrographic properties variability of the Weddell Sea deep-layer, and quantified the contribution of the source waters composing Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) in its main formation zone. Shifts in WSBW hydrographic properties towards less dense varieties likely equate to less WSBW being produced over time. WSBW is primarily composed of 71±4% of modified-Warm Deep Water (mWDW) and 29±4% of Dense Shelf Waters, with the latter composed by ~two-thirds (19±2%) of High Salinity Shelf Water and ~one-third (10±6%) of Ice Shelf Water. Further, we show evidence that WSBW variability in the eastern Weddell Sea is driven by changes in the inflow of Dense Shelf Waters and bottom water from the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean. This was observed through the rise of the WSBW contribution to the total mixture after 2005, following a twenty-year period (1984–2004) of decreasing contribution.
0967-0645
1-43
Kerr, Rodrigo
d1a51edf-f35d-49aa-9882-54847896031d
Dotto, Tiago S.
437639c6-9c67-4c83-ace3-bb490a2f44d7
Mata, Mauricio M.
3f78df01-9368-49f3-8eeb-54551edd5858
Hellmer, Hartmut H.
ee39b9ab-038e-47ac-bde4-abaef58691a1
Kerr, Rodrigo
d1a51edf-f35d-49aa-9882-54847896031d
Dotto, Tiago S.
437639c6-9c67-4c83-ace3-bb490a2f44d7
Mata, Mauricio M.
3f78df01-9368-49f3-8eeb-54551edd5858
Hellmer, Hartmut H.
ee39b9ab-038e-47ac-bde4-abaef58691a1

Kerr, Rodrigo, Dotto, Tiago S., Mata, Mauricio M. and Hellmer, Hartmut H. (2017) Three decades of deep water mass investigation in the Weddell Sea (1984–2014): temporal variability and changes. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 1-43. (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.12.002).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The role of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in changing the ocean circulation and controlling climate variability is widely known. However, a comprehensive understanding of the relative contribution and variability of Antarctic regional deep water mass varieties that form AABW is still lacking. Using a high-quality dataset comprising three decades of observational shipboard surveys in the Weddell Sea (1984–2014), we updated the structure, composition and hydrographic properties variability of the Weddell Sea deep-layer, and quantified the contribution of the source waters composing Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) in its main formation zone. Shifts in WSBW hydrographic properties towards less dense varieties likely equate to less WSBW being produced over time. WSBW is primarily composed of 71±4% of modified-Warm Deep Water (mWDW) and 29±4% of Dense Shelf Waters, with the latter composed by ~two-thirds (19±2%) of High Salinity Shelf Water and ~one-third (10±6%) of Ice Shelf Water. Further, we show evidence that WSBW variability in the eastern Weddell Sea is driven by changes in the inflow of Dense Shelf Waters and bottom water from the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean. This was observed through the rise of the WSBW contribution to the total mixture after 2005, following a twenty-year period (1984–2004) of decreasing contribution.

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Accepted/In Press date: 3 December 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 6 December 2017

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Local EPrints ID: 416817
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/416817
ISSN: 0967-0645
PURE UUID: 33d91b15-20d8-47a8-93d3-7aa895dc8e98

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Date deposited: 11 Jan 2018 17:30
Last modified: 10 Jan 2022 05:20

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Contributors

Author: Rodrigo Kerr
Author: Tiago S. Dotto
Author: Mauricio M. Mata
Author: Hartmut H. Hellmer

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