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Different accretion heating of the neutron star crust during multiple outbursts in MAXI J0556–332

Different accretion heating of the neutron star crust during multiple outbursts in MAXI J0556–332
Different accretion heating of the neutron star crust during multiple outbursts in MAXI J0556–332
The transient neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J0556−332 provides a rare opportunity to study NS crust heating and subsequent cooling for multiple outbursts of the same source. We examine MAXI, Swift, Chandra, and XMM-Newton data of MAXI J0556−332 obtained during and after three accretion outbursts of different durations and brightnesses. We report on new data obtained after outburst III. The source has been tracked up to ~1800 days after the end of outburst I. Outburst I heated the crust strongly, but no significant reheating was observed during outburst II. Cooling from ~333 eV to ~146 eV was observed during the first ~1200 days. Outburst III reheated the crust up to ~167 eV, after which the crust cooled again to ~131 eV in ~350 days. We model the thermal evolution of the crust and find that this source required a different strength and depth of shallow heating during each of the three outbursts. The shallow heating released during outburst I was ~17 MeV nucleon−1 and outburst III required ~0.3 MeV nucleon−1. These cooling observations could not be explained without shallow heating. The shallow heating for outburst II was not well constrained and could vary from ~0 to 2.2 MeV nucleon−1, i.e., this outburst could in principle be explained without invoking shallow heating. We discuss the nature of the shallow heating and why it may occur at different strengths and depths during different outbursts.
2041-8205
Parikh, Aastha S.
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Homan, Jeroen
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Wijnands, Rudy
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Ootes, Laura
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Page, Dany
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Altamirano, Diego
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Degenaar, Nathalie
347a2379-6b78-482e-976c-52f08a96114d
Brown, Edward F.
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Cackett, Edward M.
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Cumming, Andrew
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Deibel, Alex
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Fridriksson, Joel K.
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Lin, Dacheng
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Linares, Manuel
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Miller, Jon M.
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Parikh, Aastha S.
21ab1c15-6144-40a1-ac71-618e02bc37d6
Homan, Jeroen
67eb2764-46f0-455b-b1f0-f4824c129e87
Wijnands, Rudy
4ac16ff6-b564-4e5d-89d4-36ff92c6030c
Ootes, Laura
a5950718-aed6-41ee-9b93-0debcfd6ae7a
Page, Dany
b47b77ff-942c-478f-9002-6d0b588e769b
Altamirano, Diego
d5ccdb09-0b71-4303-9538-05b467be075b
Degenaar, Nathalie
347a2379-6b78-482e-976c-52f08a96114d
Brown, Edward F.
d6ab1979-fa9a-49ec-9b9d-bf809c66abad
Cackett, Edward M.
db500756-c971-444b-9677-4ee742b2dac5
Cumming, Andrew
32f48ee9-7fac-4a2b-9b92-388acca15654
Deibel, Alex
b100449f-b5ae-4bab-839e-0213936e5498
Fridriksson, Joel K.
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Lin, Dacheng
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Linares, Manuel
d501c137-c3eb-45ca-b05c-4d4040b42b7b
Miller, Jon M.
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Parikh, Aastha S., Homan, Jeroen, Wijnands, Rudy, Ootes, Laura, Page, Dany, Altamirano, Diego, Degenaar, Nathalie, Brown, Edward F., Cackett, Edward M., Cumming, Andrew, Deibel, Alex, Fridriksson, Joel K., Lin, Dacheng, Linares, Manuel and Miller, Jon M. (2017) Different accretion heating of the neutron star crust during multiple outbursts in MAXI J0556–332. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 851 (2), [L28]. (doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9e03).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The transient neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J0556−332 provides a rare opportunity to study NS crust heating and subsequent cooling for multiple outbursts of the same source. We examine MAXI, Swift, Chandra, and XMM-Newton data of MAXI J0556−332 obtained during and after three accretion outbursts of different durations and brightnesses. We report on new data obtained after outburst III. The source has been tracked up to ~1800 days after the end of outburst I. Outburst I heated the crust strongly, but no significant reheating was observed during outburst II. Cooling from ~333 eV to ~146 eV was observed during the first ~1200 days. Outburst III reheated the crust up to ~167 eV, after which the crust cooled again to ~131 eV in ~350 days. We model the thermal evolution of the crust and find that this source required a different strength and depth of shallow heating during each of the three outbursts. The shallow heating released during outburst I was ~17 MeV nucleon−1 and outburst III required ~0.3 MeV nucleon−1. These cooling observations could not be explained without shallow heating. The shallow heating for outburst II was not well constrained and could vary from ~0 to 2.2 MeV nucleon−1, i.e., this outburst could in principle be explained without invoking shallow heating. We discuss the nature of the shallow heating and why it may occur at different strengths and depths during different outbursts.

Text
DIFFERENT ACCRETION HEATING OF THE NEUTRON STAR CRUST DURING MULTIPLE OUTBURSTS - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 27 November 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 11 December 2017

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 417024
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/417024
ISSN: 2041-8205
PURE UUID: 540f915b-920d-4027-b931-cc745324011f
ORCID for Diego Altamirano: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3422-0074

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Date deposited: 17 Jan 2018 17:30
Last modified: 22 Nov 2021 06:03

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Contributors

Author: Aastha S. Parikh
Author: Jeroen Homan
Author: Rudy Wijnands
Author: Laura Ootes
Author: Dany Page
Author: Nathalie Degenaar
Author: Edward F. Brown
Author: Edward M. Cackett
Author: Andrew Cumming
Author: Alex Deibel
Author: Joel K. Fridriksson
Author: Dacheng Lin
Author: Manuel Linares
Author: Jon M. Miller

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