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Developments in soluble lead flow batteries and remaining challenges: An illustrated review

Developments in soluble lead flow batteries and remaining challenges: An illustrated review
Developments in soluble lead flow batteries and remaining challenges: An illustrated review
The soluble-lead flow battery (SLFB) utilises methanesulfonic acid, an electrolyte in which Pb(II) ions are highly soluble. During charge, solid lead and lead dioxide layers are electrodeposited at the negative and positive electrodes respectively. During discharge, the deposits are electrochemically dissolved back into the recirculating electrolyte. The cell is normally undivided, which greatly reduces design complexity and cost, whilst also reducing the flow pumping requirements. Typical SLFB electrolytes offer up to 40 W h kg-1 of storage, with performance on the 100 cm2 electrode scale reaching 90% charge and 80% voltage efficiencies across 100 cycles; however the SLFB has also been tested on the 1000 cm2 electrode, four-cell stack scale. This review considers the SLFB, highlighting important developments and discussing remaining problems. In particular, methods to achieve effective stripping of lead dioxide at the positive electrode and to prevent lead dendrites at the negative electrode in order to prevent contact between the deposits, and thus shorting, are explored. A detailed understanding of the effect of Pb(II) and methanesulfonic acid concentration on the physical electrolyte properties is presented, and possible improvements to the electrodes and electrolyte composition in terms of additives are discussed in order to improve cell efficiency and longevity. Also, the importance of cell design in preventing the failure mechanisms and therefore achieving a high performance is highlighted. Studies on mathematical modelling and cycling simulation are also reviewed. Continuing research needs are listed and a forward look to future developments is taken.
electrolyte additives, soluble lead, lead dioxide, methanesulfonic acid, redox flow battery
2352-152X
Krishna, M.
e399da21-ee25-4c11-9f29-6e11bb1f71c5
Fraser, E.J.
0c5d3bc0-a4e7-4213-ab3b-e750103469d7
Wills, R.G.A.
60b7c98f-eced-4b11-aad9-fd2484e26c2c
Walsh, F.C.
309528e7-062e-439b-af40-9309bc91efb2
Krishna, M.
e399da21-ee25-4c11-9f29-6e11bb1f71c5
Fraser, E.J.
0c5d3bc0-a4e7-4213-ab3b-e750103469d7
Wills, R.G.A.
60b7c98f-eced-4b11-aad9-fd2484e26c2c
Walsh, F.C.
309528e7-062e-439b-af40-9309bc91efb2

Krishna, M., Fraser, E.J., Wills, R.G.A. and Walsh, F.C. (2018) Developments in soluble lead flow batteries and remaining challenges: An illustrated review Journal of Energy Storage, 15 (doi:10.1016/j.est.2017.10.020).

Record type: Review

Abstract

The soluble-lead flow battery (SLFB) utilises methanesulfonic acid, an electrolyte in which Pb(II) ions are highly soluble. During charge, solid lead and lead dioxide layers are electrodeposited at the negative and positive electrodes respectively. During discharge, the deposits are electrochemically dissolved back into the recirculating electrolyte. The cell is normally undivided, which greatly reduces design complexity and cost, whilst also reducing the flow pumping requirements. Typical SLFB electrolytes offer up to 40 W h kg-1 of storage, with performance on the 100 cm2 electrode scale reaching 90% charge and 80% voltage efficiencies across 100 cycles; however the SLFB has also been tested on the 1000 cm2 electrode, four-cell stack scale. This review considers the SLFB, highlighting important developments and discussing remaining problems. In particular, methods to achieve effective stripping of lead dioxide at the positive electrode and to prevent lead dendrites at the negative electrode in order to prevent contact between the deposits, and thus shorting, are explored. A detailed understanding of the effect of Pb(II) and methanesulfonic acid concentration on the physical electrolyte properties is presented, and possible improvements to the electrodes and electrolyte composition in terms of additives are discussed in order to improve cell efficiency and longevity. Also, the importance of cell design in preventing the failure mechanisms and therefore achieving a high performance is highlighted. Studies on mathematical modelling and cycling simulation are also reviewed. Continuing research needs are listed and a forward look to future developments is taken.

Text SLFB_Review_UoS_Text_30.10.17_unmarkedchanges1 - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 30 October 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 1 December 2017
Published date: February 2018
Keywords: electrolyte additives, soluble lead, lead dioxide, methanesulfonic acid, redox flow battery

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 417297
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/417297
ISSN: 2352-152X
PURE UUID: b89f806e-397b-40e1-a977-3cd50c6366d6

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Date deposited: 29 Jan 2018 17:30
Last modified: 01 Feb 2018 17:30

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Contributors

Author: M. Krishna
Author: E.J. Fraser
Author: R.G.A. Wills
Author: F.C. Walsh

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