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A flexible 2.45-GHz power harvesting wristband with net system output from -24.3 dBm of RF power

A flexible 2.45-GHz power harvesting wristband with net system output from -24.3 dBm of RF power
A flexible 2.45-GHz power harvesting wristband with net system output from -24.3 dBm of RF power

This paper presents a flexible 2.45-GHz wireless power harvesting wristband that generates a net dc output from a -24.3-dBm RF input. This is the lowest reported system sensitivity for systems comprising a rectenna and impedance-matching power management. A complete system has been implemented comprising: a fabric antenna, a rectifier on rigid substrate, a contactless electrical connection between rigid and flexible subsystems, and power electronics impedance matching. Various fabric and flexible materials are electrically characterized at 2.45 GHz using the two-line and the T-resonator methods. Selected materials are used to design an all-textile antenna, which demonstrates a radiation efficiency above 62% on a phantom irrespective of location, and a stable radiation pattern. The rectifier, designed on a rigid substrate, shows a best-in-class efficiency of 33.6% at -20 dBm. A reliable, efficient, and wideband contactless connection between the fabric antenna and the rectifier is created using broadside-coupled microstrip lines, with an insertion loss below 1 dB from 1.8 to over 10 GHz. A self-powered boost converter with a quiescent current of 150 nA matches the rectenna output with a matching efficiency above 95%. The maximum end-to-end efficiency is 28.7% at -7 dBm. The wristband harvester demonstrates net positive energy harvesting from -24.3 dBm, a 7.3-dB improvement on the state of the art.

Boost converter, fabric antenna, fabric-to-PCB connector, Internet of Things, power management, rectenna array, rectenna impedance matching, rectennas, RF energy harvesting, RF power transfer, smart fabric, T-resonator method, textile antenna, two-line method
0018-9480
380-395
Adami, Salah Eddine
8ee79e33-d6a9-4220-aaee-8cc9eaad6709
Proynov, Plamen
bc25b4ae-f50c-457e-aa6e-696455797487
Hilton, Geoffrey S.
3edc9be4-ad15-4964-8093-953874cb9d94
Yang, Guang
19f7479e-304e-40df-9504-bd3770ea3adf
Zhang, Chunhong
cce36f3b-1878-49df-a416-b99bee45b543
Zhu, Dibin
ec52eae1-39fa-427c-968b-e76089a464a6
Li, Yi
e1298387-e0c9-4f1f-944c-c3da9b3a4b51
Beeby, Steve P.
ba565001-2812-4300-89f1-fe5a437ecb0d
Craddock, Ian J.
135d1b36-eabc-4676-9456-aa43c76ec51d
Stark, Bernard H.
b7f5894e-505c-43e3-a5be-3cc13e3220d0
Adami, Salah Eddine
8ee79e33-d6a9-4220-aaee-8cc9eaad6709
Proynov, Plamen
bc25b4ae-f50c-457e-aa6e-696455797487
Hilton, Geoffrey S.
3edc9be4-ad15-4964-8093-953874cb9d94
Yang, Guang
19f7479e-304e-40df-9504-bd3770ea3adf
Zhang, Chunhong
cce36f3b-1878-49df-a416-b99bee45b543
Zhu, Dibin
ec52eae1-39fa-427c-968b-e76089a464a6
Li, Yi
e1298387-e0c9-4f1f-944c-c3da9b3a4b51
Beeby, Steve P.
ba565001-2812-4300-89f1-fe5a437ecb0d
Craddock, Ian J.
135d1b36-eabc-4676-9456-aa43c76ec51d
Stark, Bernard H.
b7f5894e-505c-43e3-a5be-3cc13e3220d0

Adami, Salah Eddine, Proynov, Plamen, Hilton, Geoffrey S., Yang, Guang, Zhang, Chunhong, Zhu, Dibin, Li, Yi, Beeby, Steve P., Craddock, Ian J. and Stark, Bernard H. (2018) A flexible 2.45-GHz power harvesting wristband with net system output from -24.3 dBm of RF power. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 66 (1), 380-395. (doi:10.1109/TMTT.2017.2700299).

Record type: Article

Abstract

This paper presents a flexible 2.45-GHz wireless power harvesting wristband that generates a net dc output from a -24.3-dBm RF input. This is the lowest reported system sensitivity for systems comprising a rectenna and impedance-matching power management. A complete system has been implemented comprising: a fabric antenna, a rectifier on rigid substrate, a contactless electrical connection between rigid and flexible subsystems, and power electronics impedance matching. Various fabric and flexible materials are electrically characterized at 2.45 GHz using the two-line and the T-resonator methods. Selected materials are used to design an all-textile antenna, which demonstrates a radiation efficiency above 62% on a phantom irrespective of location, and a stable radiation pattern. The rectifier, designed on a rigid substrate, shows a best-in-class efficiency of 33.6% at -20 dBm. A reliable, efficient, and wideband contactless connection between the fabric antenna and the rectifier is created using broadside-coupled microstrip lines, with an insertion loss below 1 dB from 1.8 to over 10 GHz. A self-powered boost converter with a quiescent current of 150 nA matches the rectenna output with a matching efficiency above 95%. The maximum end-to-end efficiency is 28.7% at -7 dBm. The wristband harvester demonstrates net positive energy harvesting from -24.3 dBm, a 7.3-dB improvement on the state of the art.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 16 April 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 22 June 2017
Published date: 1 January 2018
Keywords: Boost converter, fabric antenna, fabric-to-PCB connector, Internet of Things, power management, rectenna array, rectenna impedance matching, rectennas, RF energy harvesting, RF power transfer, smart fabric, T-resonator method, textile antenna, two-line method

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 417420
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/417420
ISSN: 0018-9480
PURE UUID: d342f3b5-98b9-4b05-a9ca-160b2cc11fa9
ORCID for Steve P. Beeby: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0800-1759

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Date deposited: 31 Jan 2018 17:30
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 13:07

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Contributors

Author: Salah Eddine Adami
Author: Plamen Proynov
Author: Geoffrey S. Hilton
Author: Guang Yang
Author: Chunhong Zhang
Author: Dibin Zhu
Author: Yi Li
Author: Steve P. Beeby ORCID iD
Author: Ian J. Craddock
Author: Bernard H. Stark

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