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North–South asymmetries in Earth’s magnetic field: Effects on High-Latitude Geospace

North–South asymmetries in Earth’s magnetic field: Effects on High-Latitude Geospace
North–South asymmetries in Earth’s magnetic field: Effects on High-Latitude Geospace
The solar-wind magnetosphere interaction primarily occurs at altitudes where the dipole component of Earth’s magnetic field is dominating. The disturbances that are created in this interaction propagate along magnetic field lines and interact with the ionosphere–thermosphere system. At ionospheric altitudes, the Earth’s field deviates significantly from a dipole. North–South asymmetries in the magnetic field imply that the magnetosphere–ionosphere–thermosphere (M–I–T) coupling is different in the two hemispheres. In this paper we review the primary differences in the magnetic field at polar latitudes, and the consequences that these have for the M–I–T coupling. We focus on two interhemispheric differences which are thought to have the strongest effects: 1) A difference in the offset between magnetic and geographic poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 2) differences in the magnetic field strength at magnetically conjugate regions. These asymmetries lead to differences in plasma convection, neutral winds, total electron content, ion outflow, ionospheric currents and auroral precipitation.
0038-6308
225-257
Laundal, K.M.
28e9469c-e347-465f-8b35-9727929ecc39
Cnossen, I.
397d4cd7-eb00-4de7-8d7a-ef670da5bead
Milan, S.E.
4495fdee-b600-43e5-99f7-6193a849b7f5
Haaland, S.E.
0167ace5-d8dd-444f-96ac-80c13e25e0a9
Coxon, John
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Pedatella, N.M.
bb8d8009-57e3-4fe6-84dc-b33c93aa0ea7
Forster, M.
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Reistad, J.P.
2cb0e96f-2499-442f-874e-15f7e2b154ad
Laundal, K.M.
28e9469c-e347-465f-8b35-9727929ecc39
Cnossen, I.
397d4cd7-eb00-4de7-8d7a-ef670da5bead
Milan, S.E.
4495fdee-b600-43e5-99f7-6193a849b7f5
Haaland, S.E.
0167ace5-d8dd-444f-96ac-80c13e25e0a9
Coxon, John
566baea5-6a30-4855-bde3-a09c115efde4
Pedatella, N.M.
bb8d8009-57e3-4fe6-84dc-b33c93aa0ea7
Forster, M.
11a9ca2f-4405-4613-9b2f-3c6c1b12785e
Reistad, J.P.
2cb0e96f-2499-442f-874e-15f7e2b154ad

Laundal, K.M., Cnossen, I., Milan, S.E., Haaland, S.E., Coxon, John, Pedatella, N.M., Forster, M. and Reistad, J.P. (2017) North–South asymmetries in Earth’s magnetic field: Effects on High-Latitude Geospace. Space Science Reviews, 206 (1-4), 225-257. (doi:10.1007/s11214-016-0273-0).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The solar-wind magnetosphere interaction primarily occurs at altitudes where the dipole component of Earth’s magnetic field is dominating. The disturbances that are created in this interaction propagate along magnetic field lines and interact with the ionosphere–thermosphere system. At ionospheric altitudes, the Earth’s field deviates significantly from a dipole. North–South asymmetries in the magnetic field imply that the magnetosphere–ionosphere–thermosphere (M–I–T) coupling is different in the two hemispheres. In this paper we review the primary differences in the magnetic field at polar latitudes, and the consequences that these have for the M–I–T coupling. We focus on two interhemispheric differences which are thought to have the strongest effects: 1) A difference in the offset between magnetic and geographic poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 2) differences in the magnetic field strength at magnetically conjugate regions. These asymmetries lead to differences in plasma convection, neutral winds, total electron content, ion outflow, ionospheric currents and auroral precipitation.

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10.1007%2Fs11214-016-0273-0 - Version of Record
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Submitted date: 1 February 2016
Accepted/In Press date: 25 June 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 12 July 2016
Published date: March 2017

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 417613
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/417613
ISSN: 0038-6308
PURE UUID: 637bcff9-3496-47fe-b889-88c29c18c1d2
ORCID for John Coxon: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0166-6854

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Date deposited: 07 Feb 2018 17:30
Last modified: 10 Dec 2019 01:33

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