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Petrophysical, Geochemical, and Hydrological Evidence for Extensive Fracture-Mediated Fluid and Heat Transport in the Alpine Fault's Hanging-Wall Damage Zone

Petrophysical, Geochemical, and Hydrological Evidence for Extensive Fracture-Mediated Fluid and Heat Transport in the Alpine Fault's Hanging-Wall Damage Zone
Petrophysical, Geochemical, and Hydrological Evidence for Extensive Fracture-Mediated Fluid and Heat Transport in the Alpine Fault's Hanging-Wall Damage Zone
Fault rock assemblages reflect interaction between deformation, stress, temperature, fluid, and chemical regimes on distinct spatial and temporal scales at various positions in the crust. Here we interpret measurements made in the hanging-wall of the Alpine Fault during the second stage of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-2). We present observational evidence for extensive fracturing and high hanging-wall hydraulic conductivity (∼10−9 to 10−7 m/s, corresponding to permeability of ∼10−16 to 10−14 m2) extending several hundred meters from the fault's principal slip zone. Mud losses, gas chemistry anomalies, and petrophysical data indicate that a subset of fractures intersected by the borehole are capable of transmitting fluid volumes of several cubic meters on time scales of hours. DFDP-2 observations and other data suggest that this hydrogeologically active portion of the fault zone in the hanging-wall is several kilometers wide in the uppermost crust. This finding is consistent with numerical models of earthquake rupture and off-fault damage. We conclude that the mechanically and hydrogeologically active part of the Alpine Fault is a more dynamic and extensive feature than commonly described in models based on exhumed faults. We propose that the hydrogeologically active damage zone of the Alpine Fault and other large active faults in areas of high topographic relief can be subdivided into an inner zone in which damage is controlled principally by earthquake rupture processes and an outer zone in which damage reflects coseismic shaking, strain accumulation and release on interseismic timescales, and inherited fracturing related to exhumation.
1525-2027
4709
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Townend, John, Rupert, Sutherland, Toy, Virginia G., Doan, Mai-Linh, Celerier, Bernard, Massiot, Cecile, Coussens, Jamie, Jeppson, Tamara, Janku-capova, Lucie, Remaud, Lea, Upton, Phaedra, Schmitt, Douglas R., Pezard, Philippe, Williams, Jack, Allen, Michael J., Baratin, Laura-may, Barth, Nicolas, Becroft, Leeza, Boese, Carolin, Boulton, Carolyn, Broderick, Neil, Carpenter, Brett, Chamberlain, Calum, Cooper, Alan, Coutts, Ashley, Cox, Simon C., Craw, Lisa, Eccles, Jennifer, Faulkner, Dan, Grieve, Jason, Grochowski, Julia, Gulley, Anton, Hartog, Arthur H., Henry, Gilles, Howarth, Jamie, Jacobs, Katrina, Kato, Naoki, Keys, Steven, Kirilova, Martina, Kometani, Yusuke, Langridge, Rob, Lin, Weiren, Little, Tim, Lukacs, Adrienn, Mallyon, Deirdre, Mariani, Elisabetta, Mathewson, Loren, Melosh, Ben, Menzies, Catriona, Moore, Jo, Morales, Luiz, Mori, Hiroshi, Niemeijer, Andre, Nishikawa, Osamu, Nitsch, Olivier, Paris, Jehanne, Prior, David, Sauer, K., Savage, Martha, Schleicher, Anja, Shigematsu, Norio, Taylor-Offord, Sam, Teagle, Damon, Tobin, Harold, Valdez, Robert, Weaver, Konrad, Wiersberg, Thomas and Zimmer, Martin (2017) Petrophysical, Geochemical, and Hydrological Evidence for Extensive Fracture-Mediated Fluid and Heat Transport in the Alpine Fault's Hanging-Wall Damage Zone. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 18, 4709. (doi:10.1002/2017GC007202).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Fault rock assemblages reflect interaction between deformation, stress, temperature, fluid, and chemical regimes on distinct spatial and temporal scales at various positions in the crust. Here we interpret measurements made in the hanging-wall of the Alpine Fault during the second stage of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-2). We present observational evidence for extensive fracturing and high hanging-wall hydraulic conductivity (∼10−9 to 10−7 m/s, corresponding to permeability of ∼10−16 to 10−14 m2) extending several hundred meters from the fault's principal slip zone. Mud losses, gas chemistry anomalies, and petrophysical data indicate that a subset of fractures intersected by the borehole are capable of transmitting fluid volumes of several cubic meters on time scales of hours. DFDP-2 observations and other data suggest that this hydrogeologically active portion of the fault zone in the hanging-wall is several kilometers wide in the uppermost crust. This finding is consistent with numerical models of earthquake rupture and off-fault damage. We conclude that the mechanically and hydrogeologically active part of the Alpine Fault is a more dynamic and extensive feature than commonly described in models based on exhumed faults. We propose that the hydrogeologically active damage zone of the Alpine Fault and other large active faults in areas of high topographic relief can be subdivided into an inner zone in which damage is controlled principally by earthquake rupture processes and an outer zone in which damage reflects coseismic shaking, strain accumulation and release on interseismic timescales, and inherited fracturing related to exhumation.

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accepted_version_Townend_etal_Gcubed - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 1 December 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 29 December 2017

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 417664
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/417664
ISSN: 1525-2027
PURE UUID: 6867e7bb-d4b3-4e0b-b72f-a9e5a9b80a12
ORCID for Damon Teagle: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4416-8409

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Date deposited: 09 Feb 2018 17:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:43

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Contributors

Author: John Townend
Author: Sutherland Rupert
Author: Virginia G. Toy
Author: Mai-Linh Doan
Author: Bernard Celerier
Author: Cecile Massiot
Author: Jamie Coussens
Author: Tamara Jeppson
Author: Lucie Janku-capova
Author: Lea Remaud
Author: Phaedra Upton
Author: Douglas R. Schmitt
Author: Philippe Pezard
Author: Jack Williams
Author: Michael J. Allen
Author: Laura-may Baratin
Author: Nicolas Barth
Author: Leeza Becroft
Author: Carolin Boese
Author: Carolyn Boulton
Author: Neil Broderick
Author: Brett Carpenter
Author: Calum Chamberlain
Author: Alan Cooper
Author: Ashley Coutts
Author: Simon C. Cox
Author: Lisa Craw
Author: Jennifer Eccles
Author: Dan Faulkner
Author: Jason Grieve
Author: Julia Grochowski
Author: Anton Gulley
Author: Arthur H. Hartog
Author: Gilles Henry
Author: Jamie Howarth
Author: Katrina Jacobs
Author: Naoki Kato
Author: Steven Keys
Author: Martina Kirilova
Author: Yusuke Kometani
Author: Rob Langridge
Author: Weiren Lin
Author: Tim Little
Author: Adrienn Lukacs
Author: Deirdre Mallyon
Author: Elisabetta Mariani
Author: Loren Mathewson
Author: Ben Melosh
Author: Catriona Menzies
Author: Jo Moore
Author: Luiz Morales
Author: Hiroshi Mori
Author: Andre Niemeijer
Author: Osamu Nishikawa
Author: Olivier Nitsch
Author: Jehanne Paris
Author: David Prior
Author: K. Sauer
Author: Martha Savage
Author: Anja Schleicher
Author: Norio Shigematsu
Author: Sam Taylor-Offord
Author: Damon Teagle ORCID iD
Author: Harold Tobin
Author: Robert Valdez
Author: Konrad Weaver
Author: Thomas Wiersberg
Author: Martin Zimmer

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