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30 years in the life of an active submarine volcano: A time-lapse bathymetry study of the Kick-'em-Jenny Volcano, Lesser Antilles

30 years in the life of an active submarine volcano: A time-lapse bathymetry study of the Kick-'em-Jenny Volcano, Lesser Antilles
30 years in the life of an active submarine volcano: A time-lapse bathymetry study of the Kick-'em-Jenny Volcano, Lesser Antilles
Effective monitoring is an essential part of identifying and mitigating volcanic hazards. In the submarine environment this is more difficult than onshore because observations are typically limited to land-based seismic networks and infrequent shipboard surveys. Since the first recorded eruption in 1939, the Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ) volcano, located 8km off northern Grenada, has been the source of 13 episodes of T-phase signals. These distinctive seismic signals, often coincident with heightened body-wave seismicity, are interpreted as extrusive eruptions. They have occurred with a recurrence interval of around a decade, yet direct confirmation of volcanism has been rare. By conducting new bathymetric surveys in 2016 and 2017 and reprocessing 4 legacy datasets spanning 30 years we present a clearer picture of the development of KeJ through time. Processed grids with a cell size of 5m and vertical precision on the order of 1-4m allow us to correlate T-phase episodes with morphological changes at the volcano's edifice. In the time-period of observation 7.09x106 m3 of material has been added through constructive volcanism - yet 5 times this amount has been lost through landslides. Limited recent magma production suggests that KeJ may be susceptible to larger eruptions with longer repeat times than have occurred during the study interval, behavior more similar to sub-aerial volcanism in the arc than previously thought. T-phase signals at KeJ have a varied origin and are unlikely to be solely the result of extrusive submarine eruptions. Our results confirm the value of repeat swath bathymetry surveys in assessing submarine volcanic hazards.
Time-lapse bathymetry, Kick-'em-Jenny, Submarine volcanism, Submarine landslides, Lesser Antilles
1525-2027
715-731
Allen, Robert
faf7d3c0-7467-4ade-82e2-d36eaf73bef2
Berry, Cameron
6309a2ab-4a78-4a93-bdc4-159ef78419c7
Henstock, Timothy
27c450a4-3e6b-41f8-97f9-4e0e181400bb
Collier, Jenny S.
04a0fcc8-caeb-4f08-a967-a19e57d1a5e1
Dondin, Frederic
b9527b85-b12f-4961-b07e-1aff1fa0f826
Rietbrock, Andreas
9fbc63af-9a9a-4dfe-a389-83d92b5f4cc2
Latchman, Joan
f6c8ea87-c102-41f1-b089-2312f8ac37eb
Robertson, Richard
20b02a16-10d3-41de-94d1-ad5b49575f62
Allen, Robert
faf7d3c0-7467-4ade-82e2-d36eaf73bef2
Berry, Cameron
6309a2ab-4a78-4a93-bdc4-159ef78419c7
Henstock, Timothy
27c450a4-3e6b-41f8-97f9-4e0e181400bb
Collier, Jenny S.
04a0fcc8-caeb-4f08-a967-a19e57d1a5e1
Dondin, Frederic
b9527b85-b12f-4961-b07e-1aff1fa0f826
Rietbrock, Andreas
9fbc63af-9a9a-4dfe-a389-83d92b5f4cc2
Latchman, Joan
f6c8ea87-c102-41f1-b089-2312f8ac37eb
Robertson, Richard
20b02a16-10d3-41de-94d1-ad5b49575f62

Allen, Robert, Berry, Cameron, Henstock, Timothy, Collier, Jenny S., Dondin, Frederic, Rietbrock, Andreas, Latchman, Joan and Robertson, Richard (2018) 30 years in the life of an active submarine volcano: A time-lapse bathymetry study of the Kick-'em-Jenny Volcano, Lesser Antilles. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19 (3), 715-731. (doi:10.1002/2017GC007270).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Effective monitoring is an essential part of identifying and mitigating volcanic hazards. In the submarine environment this is more difficult than onshore because observations are typically limited to land-based seismic networks and infrequent shipboard surveys. Since the first recorded eruption in 1939, the Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ) volcano, located 8km off northern Grenada, has been the source of 13 episodes of T-phase signals. These distinctive seismic signals, often coincident with heightened body-wave seismicity, are interpreted as extrusive eruptions. They have occurred with a recurrence interval of around a decade, yet direct confirmation of volcanism has been rare. By conducting new bathymetric surveys in 2016 and 2017 and reprocessing 4 legacy datasets spanning 30 years we present a clearer picture of the development of KeJ through time. Processed grids with a cell size of 5m and vertical precision on the order of 1-4m allow us to correlate T-phase episodes with morphological changes at the volcano's edifice. In the time-period of observation 7.09x106 m3 of material has been added through constructive volcanism - yet 5 times this amount has been lost through landslides. Limited recent magma production suggests that KeJ may be susceptible to larger eruptions with longer repeat times than have occurred during the study interval, behavior more similar to sub-aerial volcanism in the arc than previously thought. T-phase signals at KeJ have a varied origin and are unlikely to be solely the result of extrusive submarine eruptions. Our results confirm the value of repeat swath bathymetry surveys in assessing submarine volcanic hazards.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 5 February 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 9 February 2018
Published date: March 2018
Keywords: Time-lapse bathymetry, Kick-'em-Jenny, Submarine volcanism, Submarine landslides, Lesser Antilles

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 417746
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/417746
ISSN: 1525-2027
PURE UUID: 5298ce82-9a5d-4f53-a923-fe9aa26f3be0
ORCID for Timothy Henstock: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2132-2514

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Date deposited: 13 Feb 2018 17:30
Last modified: 08 Aug 2018 00:34

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Contributors

Author: Robert Allen
Author: Cameron Berry
Author: Jenny S. Collier
Author: Frederic Dondin
Author: Andreas Rietbrock
Author: Joan Latchman
Author: Richard Robertson

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