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Correlation and astronomical calibration of Pacific sediments from ODP Leg 199 (abstract of paper presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 6-10 Dec 2002)

Correlation and astronomical calibration of Pacific sediments from ODP Leg 199 (abstract of paper presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 6-10 Dec 2002)
Correlation and astronomical calibration of Pacific sediments from ODP Leg 199 (abstract of paper presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 6-10 Dec 2002)
One of the great successes of Leg 199 was the recovery of a high-resolution (~1-2 cm/ky) biogenic sediment record from the late Paleocene to the early Miocene. These sediments were found to contain an uninterrupted set of geomagnetic polarity, as well as a detailed record of calcareous and siliceous biostratigraphic datum points. In addition, lithological measurements revealed clearly recognisable cycles that can be attributed to climatic change, driven by Milankovitch style orbital variations of the Earth. Discovering drill sites with a well-defined magneto- and biostratigraphic record that also show clear lithological cycles is rare and valuable, and opens the opportunity to develop a detailed stratigraphic inter-site correlation, as well as providing the data to refine and extend the astronomical time calibration for parts of the Cenozoic.
The basis for stratigraphic correlation and time scale calibration is a complete and representative sedimentary record with a high signal-to-noise ratio in the lithological data. Shipboard work allowed the generation of a continuous "spliced" record, formed by correlation of at least two holes drilled at the same site. However, differential stretching and squeezing of sedimentary features, due to both coring and geological processes, result in events that are not aligned in the depth domain. We present the results of extensive post-cruise work that resulted in the generation of a revised composite depth stack that puts data from all holes of sites 1218 and 1219 into a common depth framework. It was possible to extrapolate magneto- and biostratigraphic datum points between these two sites (separated by ~750 km). This procedure allowed the generation of a "site composite record", which provides smaller uncertainty intervals for bio- and magnetostratigraphic zones, as well as giving refined and more detailed preliminary age models for either site.
We then use the aligned and stacked lithological data from sites 1218 and 1219 to develop a preliminary astronomical time scale calibration that also spans the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) boundary. First results indicate that (1) all main orbital frequencies (long & short eccentricity, obliquity and climatic precession) are present in the record, but (2) the dominant cyclicity changes across the (E/O) as well as within the Oligocene, possibly related to the evolution of the CCD. (3) A plateau in a step-like transition observed across the E/O from Site 1218 can be constrained to approximately one eccentricity cycle, and (4) distinct eccentricity cycles (~400 ky and 100 ky) in the Oligocene can be matched to amplitude modulation cycles of climatic precession observed from Atlantic ODP cruise Leg 154, which was astronomically calibrated by Shackleton et al. (1999). Re-tuning the records for this interval required a slight "stretching" to take account of the fact that 400-ky eccentricity maxima in the Oligocene are around 100ky older than in the previous astronomical solution. This obviously required the addition of a very small number of additional obliquity cycles; thus it was necessary to make a judgement anew regarding the interpretation of each cycle. This in turn enables us to assess the degree of robustness of the tuning. The fact that in the new tuning the amplitude modulation of the obliquity signal in the 20Ma to 24Ma time window still matches the calculated modulation is not surprising since in this time-window the amplitude envelope of obliquity moved back in age to the same extent as the eccentricity signal, as a result of the new calculations. However, the fact that the re-tuned data now demonstrates an amplitude modulation of the obliquity signal that remains in phase with the calculated signal back to 30Ma, despite the fact that the re-tuning did not entail significant re-interpretation of the record, strongly suggests both that the new solution represents an "improvement" and that the coherence with this long-term modulation constitutes a very strong independent validation of this approach to geological time scale development.
0096-3941
p.F947
Pälike, H.
b9bf7798-ad8c-479b-8487-dd9a30a61fa5
Moore, T.C.
7bbc9539-0103-4010-8a24-f31124baacfb
Janecek, T.R.
cb111528-5025-48fe-a999-35ee27d2643c
Pälike, H.
b9bf7798-ad8c-479b-8487-dd9a30a61fa5
Moore, T.C.
7bbc9539-0103-4010-8a24-f31124baacfb
Janecek, T.R.
cb111528-5025-48fe-a999-35ee27d2643c

Pälike, H., Moore, T.C. and Janecek, T.R. (2002) Correlation and astronomical calibration of Pacific sediments from ODP Leg 199 (abstract of paper presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 6-10 Dec 2002). EOS: Transactions American Geophysical Union, 83 (47, Supplement), p.F947.

Record type: Article

Abstract

One of the great successes of Leg 199 was the recovery of a high-resolution (~1-2 cm/ky) biogenic sediment record from the late Paleocene to the early Miocene. These sediments were found to contain an uninterrupted set of geomagnetic polarity, as well as a detailed record of calcareous and siliceous biostratigraphic datum points. In addition, lithological measurements revealed clearly recognisable cycles that can be attributed to climatic change, driven by Milankovitch style orbital variations of the Earth. Discovering drill sites with a well-defined magneto- and biostratigraphic record that also show clear lithological cycles is rare and valuable, and opens the opportunity to develop a detailed stratigraphic inter-site correlation, as well as providing the data to refine and extend the astronomical time calibration for parts of the Cenozoic.
The basis for stratigraphic correlation and time scale calibration is a complete and representative sedimentary record with a high signal-to-noise ratio in the lithological data. Shipboard work allowed the generation of a continuous "spliced" record, formed by correlation of at least two holes drilled at the same site. However, differential stretching and squeezing of sedimentary features, due to both coring and geological processes, result in events that are not aligned in the depth domain. We present the results of extensive post-cruise work that resulted in the generation of a revised composite depth stack that puts data from all holes of sites 1218 and 1219 into a common depth framework. It was possible to extrapolate magneto- and biostratigraphic datum points between these two sites (separated by ~750 km). This procedure allowed the generation of a "site composite record", which provides smaller uncertainty intervals for bio- and magnetostratigraphic zones, as well as giving refined and more detailed preliminary age models for either site.
We then use the aligned and stacked lithological data from sites 1218 and 1219 to develop a preliminary astronomical time scale calibration that also spans the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) boundary. First results indicate that (1) all main orbital frequencies (long & short eccentricity, obliquity and climatic precession) are present in the record, but (2) the dominant cyclicity changes across the (E/O) as well as within the Oligocene, possibly related to the evolution of the CCD. (3) A plateau in a step-like transition observed across the E/O from Site 1218 can be constrained to approximately one eccentricity cycle, and (4) distinct eccentricity cycles (~400 ky and 100 ky) in the Oligocene can be matched to amplitude modulation cycles of climatic precession observed from Atlantic ODP cruise Leg 154, which was astronomically calibrated by Shackleton et al. (1999). Re-tuning the records for this interval required a slight "stretching" to take account of the fact that 400-ky eccentricity maxima in the Oligocene are around 100ky older than in the previous astronomical solution. This obviously required the addition of a very small number of additional obliquity cycles; thus it was necessary to make a judgement anew regarding the interpretation of each cycle. This in turn enables us to assess the degree of robustness of the tuning. The fact that in the new tuning the amplitude modulation of the obliquity signal in the 20Ma to 24Ma time window still matches the calculated modulation is not surprising since in this time-window the amplitude envelope of obliquity moved back in age to the same extent as the eccentricity signal, as a result of the new calculations. However, the fact that the re-tuned data now demonstrates an amplitude modulation of the obliquity signal that remains in phase with the calculated signal back to 30Ma, despite the fact that the re-tuning did not entail significant re-interpretation of the record, strongly suggests both that the new solution represents an "improvement" and that the coherence with this long-term modulation constitutes a very strong independent validation of this approach to geological time scale development.

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Published date: 2002

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 41873
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/41873
ISSN: 0096-3941
PURE UUID: edd0f4bf-d530-4789-9866-2b06efe26072

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Date deposited: 16 Oct 2006
Last modified: 19 Nov 2021 20:03

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Contributors

Author: H. Pälike
Author: T.C. Moore
Author: T.R. Janecek

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