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Deep-sea mining with no net loss of biodiversity-an impossible aim

Deep-sea mining with no net loss of biodiversity-an impossible aim
Deep-sea mining with no net loss of biodiversity-an impossible aim

Deep-sea mining is likely to result in biodiversity loss, and the significance of this to ecosystem function is not known. "Out of kind" biodiversity offsets substituting one ecosystem type (e.g.,coral reefs) for another (e.g., abyssal nodule fields) have been proposed to compensate for such loss. Here we consider a goal of no net loss (NNL) of biodiversity and explore the challenges of applying this aim to deep seabed mining, based on the associated mitigation hierarchy (avoid,minimize, remediate). We conclude that the industry cannot at present deliver an outcome of NNL. This results from the vulnerable nature of deep-sea environments to mining impacts, currently limited technological capacity to minimize harm, significant gaps in ecological knowledge, and uncertainties of recovery potential of deep-sea ecosystems. Avoidance and minimization of impacts are therefore the only presently viable means of reducing biodiversity losses from seabed mining. Because of these constraints, when and if deep-sea mining proceeds, it must be approached in a precautionary and step-wise manner to integrate new and developing knowledge. Each step should be subject to explicit environmental management goals, monitoring protocols, and binding standards to avoid serious environmental harm and minimize loss of biodiversity. "Out of kind" measures, an option for compensation currently proposed, cannot replicate biodiversity and ecosystem services lost through mining of the deep seabed and thus cannot be considered true offsets. The ecosystem functions provided by deep-sea biodiversity contribute to a wide range of provisioning services (e.g., the exploitation of fish, energy, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics), play an essential role in regulatory services (e.g., carbon sequestration) and are important culturally. The level of "acceptable" biodiversity loss in the deep sea requires public, transparent, and well-informed consideration, as well as wide agreement. If accepted, further agreement on how to assess residual losses remaining after the robust implementation of the mitigation hierarchy is also imperative. To ameliorate some of the inter-generational inequity caused by mining-associated biodiversity losses, and only after all NNL measures have been used to the fullest extent, potential compensatory actions would need to be focused on measures to improve the knowledge and protection of the deep sea and to demonstrate benefits that will endure for future generations.

Biodiversity offsetting, Compensation, Deep-sea mining, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Mitigation hierarchy, No net loss
2296-7745
Niner, Holly J.
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Ardron, Jeff A.
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Escobar, Elva G.
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Gianni, Matthew
07388a92-a704-4215-b358-8619be075c01
Jaeckel, Aline
96ef7ac7-082f-42a7-8639-4ece4597624f
Jones, Daniel O.B.
44fc07b3-5fb7-4bf5-9cec-78c78022613a
Levin, Lisa A.
44c9684c-86c9-4d3e-9b37-27df96d55f72
Smith, Craig R.
621438c4-d234-44c3-8561-08e7c3a34d55
Thiele, Torsten
7093f5b9-be6a-42c4-b10a-283d401528bc
Turner, Phillip J.
f431dc56-23e0-4f15-bdc2-758aa2b410b6
Van Dover, Cindy L.
ae91402f-83d9-462c-98c8-b699cee716ea
Watling, Les
33dc83a6-e7e5-4855-bf85-b9a09a412bb5
Gjerde, Kristina M.
957bc2bc-cb95-42fb-bb71-3677afdd040b
Niner, Holly J.
268c5a59-5c27-406b-9e39-d978e568c312
Ardron, Jeff A.
3a5ab3bf-bd0a-45c7-b6ec-705f74e0cf2f
Escobar, Elva G.
8116c7b9-67da-4af7-8b6d-316d5bddaf23
Gianni, Matthew
07388a92-a704-4215-b358-8619be075c01
Jaeckel, Aline
96ef7ac7-082f-42a7-8639-4ece4597624f
Jones, Daniel O.B.
44fc07b3-5fb7-4bf5-9cec-78c78022613a
Levin, Lisa A.
44c9684c-86c9-4d3e-9b37-27df96d55f72
Smith, Craig R.
621438c4-d234-44c3-8561-08e7c3a34d55
Thiele, Torsten
7093f5b9-be6a-42c4-b10a-283d401528bc
Turner, Phillip J.
f431dc56-23e0-4f15-bdc2-758aa2b410b6
Van Dover, Cindy L.
ae91402f-83d9-462c-98c8-b699cee716ea
Watling, Les
33dc83a6-e7e5-4855-bf85-b9a09a412bb5
Gjerde, Kristina M.
957bc2bc-cb95-42fb-bb71-3677afdd040b

Niner, Holly J., Ardron, Jeff A., Escobar, Elva G., Gianni, Matthew, Jaeckel, Aline, Jones, Daniel O.B., Levin, Lisa A., Smith, Craig R., Thiele, Torsten, Turner, Phillip J., Van Dover, Cindy L., Watling, Les and Gjerde, Kristina M. (2018) Deep-sea mining with no net loss of biodiversity-an impossible aim. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5 (MAR), [53]. (doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00053).

Record type: Letter

Abstract

Deep-sea mining is likely to result in biodiversity loss, and the significance of this to ecosystem function is not known. "Out of kind" biodiversity offsets substituting one ecosystem type (e.g.,coral reefs) for another (e.g., abyssal nodule fields) have been proposed to compensate for such loss. Here we consider a goal of no net loss (NNL) of biodiversity and explore the challenges of applying this aim to deep seabed mining, based on the associated mitigation hierarchy (avoid,minimize, remediate). We conclude that the industry cannot at present deliver an outcome of NNL. This results from the vulnerable nature of deep-sea environments to mining impacts, currently limited technological capacity to minimize harm, significant gaps in ecological knowledge, and uncertainties of recovery potential of deep-sea ecosystems. Avoidance and minimization of impacts are therefore the only presently viable means of reducing biodiversity losses from seabed mining. Because of these constraints, when and if deep-sea mining proceeds, it must be approached in a precautionary and step-wise manner to integrate new and developing knowledge. Each step should be subject to explicit environmental management goals, monitoring protocols, and binding standards to avoid serious environmental harm and minimize loss of biodiversity. "Out of kind" measures, an option for compensation currently proposed, cannot replicate biodiversity and ecosystem services lost through mining of the deep seabed and thus cannot be considered true offsets. The ecosystem functions provided by deep-sea biodiversity contribute to a wide range of provisioning services (e.g., the exploitation of fish, energy, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics), play an essential role in regulatory services (e.g., carbon sequestration) and are important culturally. The level of "acceptable" biodiversity loss in the deep sea requires public, transparent, and well-informed consideration, as well as wide agreement. If accepted, further agreement on how to assess residual losses remaining after the robust implementation of the mitigation hierarchy is also imperative. To ameliorate some of the inter-generational inequity caused by mining-associated biodiversity losses, and only after all NNL measures have been used to the fullest extent, potential compensatory actions would need to be focused on measures to improve the knowledge and protection of the deep sea and to demonstrate benefits that will endure for future generations.

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Accepted/In Press date: 5 February 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 1 March 2018
Published date: 1 March 2018
Keywords: Biodiversity offsetting, Compensation, Deep-sea mining, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Mitigation hierarchy, No net loss

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 418781
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/418781
ISSN: 2296-7745
PURE UUID: 17247166-f6ba-4f89-841a-45226bcebcd9

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Date deposited: 22 Mar 2018 17:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 00:11

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Contributors

Author: Holly J. Niner
Author: Jeff A. Ardron
Author: Elva G. Escobar
Author: Matthew Gianni
Author: Aline Jaeckel
Author: Daniel O.B. Jones
Author: Lisa A. Levin
Author: Craig R. Smith
Author: Torsten Thiele
Author: Phillip J. Turner
Author: Cindy L. Van Dover
Author: Les Watling
Author: Kristina M. Gjerde

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