Lett, C., Roy, C., Levasseur, A., Van Der Lingen, C. and Mullon, C.
Simulation and quantification of enrichment and retention processes in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem
Fisheries Oceanography, 15, (5), . (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2419.2005.00392.x).
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Important environmental processes for the survival and recruitment of early life stages of pelagic fishes have been synthesized through Bakun's fundamental triad as enrichment, concentration and retention processes (A. Bakun, 1996, Patterns in the Ocean. Ocean Processes and Marine Population Dynamics. San Diego, CA, USA: University of California Sea Grant). This conceptual framework states that from favourable spawning habitats, eggs and larvae would be transported to and/or retained in places where food originating from enrichment areas would be concentrated. We propose a method for quantifying two of the triad processes, enrichment and retention, based on the Lagrangian tracking of particles transported within water velocity fields generated by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We apply this method to the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem, constructing putative maps of enrichment and retention. We comment on these maps regarding main features of the circulation in the region, and investigate seasonal variability of the processes. We finally discuss the results in relation to available knowledge on the reproductive strategies of two pelagic clupeoid species abundant in the southern Benguela, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardinops sagax). Our approach is intended to be sufficiently generic so as to allow its application to other upwelling systems.
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