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Seismic amplitude ratio analysis of the 2014–2015 bár ∂arbunga-Holuhraun dike propagation and eruption

Seismic amplitude ratio analysis of the 2014–2015 bár ∂arbunga-Holuhraun dike propagation and eruption
Seismic amplitude ratio analysis of the 2014–2015 bár ∂arbunga-Holuhraun dike propagation and eruption
Magma is transported in brittle rock through dikes and sills. This movement may be accompanied by the release of seismic energy that can be tracked from the Earth's surface. Locating dikes and deciphering their dynamics is therefore of prime importance in understanding and potentially forecasting volcanic eruptions. The Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis (SARA) method aims to track melt propagation using the amplitudes recorded across a seismic network without picking the arrival times of individual earthquake phases. This study validates this methodology by comparing SARA locations (filtered between 2 and 16 Hz) with the earthquake locations (same frequency band) recorded during the 2014–2015 Bár ð arbunga-Holuhraun dike intrusion and eruption in Iceland. Integrating both approaches also provides the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of magma migration during the dike intrusion and ensuing eruption. During the intrusion SARA locations correspond remarkably well to the locations of earthquakes. Several exceptions are, however, observed. (1) A low-frequency signal was possibly associated with a subglacial eruption on 23 August. (2) A systematic retreat of the seismicity was also observed to the back of each active segment during stalled phases and was associated with a larger spatial extent of the seismic energy source. This behavior may be controlled by the dike's shape and/or by dike inflation. (3) During the eruption SARA locations consistently focused at the eruptive site. (4) Tremor-rich signal close to ice cauldrons occurred on 3 September. This study demonstrates the power of the SARA methodology, provided robust site amplification; Quality Factors and seismic velocities are available.
Bardarbunga-Holuhraun, dike propagation, magma migration, monitoring, seismology, volcanology
2169-9313
264-276
Caudron, Corentin
7db0492d-f8c6-4c38-adf0-ea43299dbdd3
White, Robert S.
80949343-6d64-42e3-acb2-812307f1b274
Woods, Jennifer
5e468e17-08fb-4192-aa6f-d5493085bb27
Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg
cc09a8de-0dc4-465f-9049-06239dd133e4
Donaldson, Clare
6df4e789-22d0-42b7-a9d0-24156c35797a
Greenfield, Tim
be593d17-54a8-4c18-ac57-9ce1bfe3920f
Rivalta, Eleonora
f2c9c3c1-a1bd-459f-a839-d746d331bf7e
Brandsdóttir, Bryndís
930cb505-ab9d-41e7-aaa1-1ebec6172010
Caudron, Corentin
7db0492d-f8c6-4c38-adf0-ea43299dbdd3
White, Robert S.
80949343-6d64-42e3-acb2-812307f1b274
Woods, Jennifer
5e468e17-08fb-4192-aa6f-d5493085bb27
Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg
cc09a8de-0dc4-465f-9049-06239dd133e4
Donaldson, Clare
6df4e789-22d0-42b7-a9d0-24156c35797a
Greenfield, Tim
be593d17-54a8-4c18-ac57-9ce1bfe3920f
Rivalta, Eleonora
f2c9c3c1-a1bd-459f-a839-d746d331bf7e
Brandsdóttir, Bryndís
930cb505-ab9d-41e7-aaa1-1ebec6172010

Caudron, Corentin, White, Robert S., Woods, Jennifer, Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg, Donaldson, Clare, Greenfield, Tim, Rivalta, Eleonora and Brandsdóttir, Bryndís (2018) Seismic amplitude ratio analysis of the 2014–2015 bár ∂arbunga-Holuhraun dike propagation and eruption. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 123 (1), 264-276. (doi:10.1002/2017JB014660).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Magma is transported in brittle rock through dikes and sills. This movement may be accompanied by the release of seismic energy that can be tracked from the Earth's surface. Locating dikes and deciphering their dynamics is therefore of prime importance in understanding and potentially forecasting volcanic eruptions. The Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis (SARA) method aims to track melt propagation using the amplitudes recorded across a seismic network without picking the arrival times of individual earthquake phases. This study validates this methodology by comparing SARA locations (filtered between 2 and 16 Hz) with the earthquake locations (same frequency band) recorded during the 2014–2015 Bár ð arbunga-Holuhraun dike intrusion and eruption in Iceland. Integrating both approaches also provides the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of magma migration during the dike intrusion and ensuing eruption. During the intrusion SARA locations correspond remarkably well to the locations of earthquakes. Several exceptions are, however, observed. (1) A low-frequency signal was possibly associated with a subglacial eruption on 23 August. (2) A systematic retreat of the seismicity was also observed to the back of each active segment during stalled phases and was associated with a larger spatial extent of the seismic energy source. This behavior may be controlled by the dike's shape and/or by dike inflation. (3) During the eruption SARA locations consistently focused at the eruptive site. (4) Tremor-rich signal close to ice cauldrons occurred on 3 September. This study demonstrates the power of the SARA methodology, provided robust site amplification; Quality Factors and seismic velocities are available.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 25 December 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 22 January 2018
Published date: January 2018
Keywords: Bardarbunga-Holuhraun, dike propagation, magma migration, monitoring, seismology, volcanology

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 419812
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/419812
ISSN: 2169-9313
PURE UUID: 5a9a92b5-78ff-4e69-b742-983dcf5ab6ea
ORCID for Tim Greenfield: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4370-7298

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Date deposited: 20 Apr 2018 16:30
Last modified: 17 Sep 2019 01:15

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Contributors

Author: Corentin Caudron
Author: Robert S. White
Author: Jennifer Woods
Author: Thorbjörg Ágústsdóttir
Author: Clare Donaldson
Author: Tim Greenfield ORCID iD
Author: Eleonora Rivalta
Author: Bryndís Brandsdóttir

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