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Liberal pacification and the phenomenology of violence

Liberal pacification and the phenomenology of violence
Liberal pacification and the phenomenology of violence
While international relations scholars make many claims about violence, they rarely define the concept. This article develops a typology of three distinct kinds of violence: direct, indirect, and pacification. Direct violence occurs when a person or agent inflicts harm on another. Indirect violence manifests through the structures of society. We propose a third understanding of violence: pacification. Using a phenomenological methodology, and drawing on anarchist and postcolonial thought, we show that the violence of pacification is diffuse, inconspicuous, intersubjective, and structured into the fabric of society. This understanding of violence matters for the study of international relations in general and research on the liberal peace in particular. We argue that the spread of liberal institutions does not necessarily decrease violence but instead transforms it. Our phenomenological analysis captures empirical trends in human domination and suffering that liberal peace theories cannot account for. It reveals how a decline in direct violence may coincide with the transformation of violence in ways that are concealed, monopolized, and structured into the liberal order. We call this process liberal pacification.
0020-8833
199-212
Baron, Ilan
9159cf9b-a47e-49ea-bb52-05208da1a0a4
Havercroft, Jonathan
929f9452-daf9-4859-9f59-88348846949a
Kamola, Isaac
ba6b24c7-322e-4a38-884a-bfc33c2c413c
Koomen, Jonneke
2e8f2420-4d45-4176-a9d1-2d3b89d78dc0
Murphy, Justin
cdf28232-2d67-4188-98cf-d81896682bf0
Prichard, Alex
48f41442-c69f-465e-bbf2-556040c77a6e
Baron, Ilan
9159cf9b-a47e-49ea-bb52-05208da1a0a4
Havercroft, Jonathan
929f9452-daf9-4859-9f59-88348846949a
Kamola, Isaac
ba6b24c7-322e-4a38-884a-bfc33c2c413c
Koomen, Jonneke
2e8f2420-4d45-4176-a9d1-2d3b89d78dc0
Murphy, Justin
cdf28232-2d67-4188-98cf-d81896682bf0
Prichard, Alex
48f41442-c69f-465e-bbf2-556040c77a6e

Baron, Ilan, Havercroft, Jonathan, Kamola, Isaac, Koomen, Jonneke, Murphy, Justin and Prichard, Alex (2019) Liberal pacification and the phenomenology of violence. International Studies Quarterly, 63 (1), 199-212. (doi:10.1093/isq/sqy060).

Record type: Article

Abstract

While international relations scholars make many claims about violence, they rarely define the concept. This article develops a typology of three distinct kinds of violence: direct, indirect, and pacification. Direct violence occurs when a person or agent inflicts harm on another. Indirect violence manifests through the structures of society. We propose a third understanding of violence: pacification. Using a phenomenological methodology, and drawing on anarchist and postcolonial thought, we show that the violence of pacification is diffuse, inconspicuous, intersubjective, and structured into the fabric of society. This understanding of violence matters for the study of international relations in general and research on the liberal peace in particular. We argue that the spread of liberal institutions does not necessarily decrease violence but instead transforms it. Our phenomenological analysis captures empirical trends in human domination and suffering that liberal peace theories cannot account for. It reveals how a decline in direct violence may coincide with the transformation of violence in ways that are concealed, monopolized, and structured into the liberal order. We call this process liberal pacification.

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Liberal-Peace-ISQ - Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only until 19 July 2020.
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Accepted/In Press date: 19 April 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 18 March 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 419986
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/419986
ISSN: 0020-8833
PURE UUID: d5f4d67d-8a12-4110-be33-c8c6bdda9c03
ORCID for Jonathan Havercroft: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0995-8912

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Date deposited: 25 Apr 2018 16:30
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:39

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