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The Extracellular environment of the CNS: Influence on plasticity, sprouting, and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury

The Extracellular environment of the CNS: Influence on plasticity, sprouting, and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury
The Extracellular environment of the CNS: Influence on plasticity, sprouting, and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury
The extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS) becomes highly structured and organized as the nervous system matures. The extracellular space of the CNS along with its subdomains plays a crucial role in the function and stability of the CNS. In this review, we have focused on two components of the neuronal extracellular environment, which are important in regulating CNS plasticity including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and myelin. The ECM consists of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and tenascins, which are organized into unique structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs associate with the neuronal cell body and proximal dendrites of predominantly parvalbumin-positive interneurons, forming a robust lattice-like
structure. These developmentally regulated structures are maintained in the adult CNS and enhance synaptic stability. After injury, however, CSPGs and tenascins contribute to the structure of the inhibitory glial scar, which actively prevents axonal regeneration. Myelin sheaths and mature adult oligodendrocytes, despite their important role in signal conduction in mature
CNS axons, contribute to the inhibitory environment existing after injury. As such, unlike the peripheral nervous system, the CNS is unable to revert to a “developmental state” to aid neuronal repair. Modulation of these external factors, however, has been shown to promote growth, regeneration, and functional plasticity after injury. This review will highlight some of the factors that contribute to or prevent plasticity, sprouting, and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury.
chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, extracellular matrix, myelin, perineuronal net, spinal cord injury, tenascin
Quraishe, Shmma
cfc3aed4-f120-41aa-9127-0fc26c657ad2
Forbes, Lindsey
bb91f198-13e6-4b9e-ad34-d6f0423b9647
Andrews, Melissa R.
ae987a2f-878e-4ae3-a7a3-a7170712096c
Quraishe, Shmma
cfc3aed4-f120-41aa-9127-0fc26c657ad2
Forbes, Lindsey
bb91f198-13e6-4b9e-ad34-d6f0423b9647
Andrews, Melissa R.
ae987a2f-878e-4ae3-a7a3-a7170712096c

Quraishe, Shmma, Forbes, Lindsey and Andrews, Melissa R. (2018) The Extracellular environment of the CNS: Influence on plasticity, sprouting, and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Neural Plasticity, 2018, [2952386]. (doi:10.1155/2018/2952386).

Record type: Review

Abstract

The extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS) becomes highly structured and organized as the nervous system matures. The extracellular space of the CNS along with its subdomains plays a crucial role in the function and stability of the CNS. In this review, we have focused on two components of the neuronal extracellular environment, which are important in regulating CNS plasticity including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and myelin. The ECM consists of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and tenascins, which are organized into unique structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs associate with the neuronal cell body and proximal dendrites of predominantly parvalbumin-positive interneurons, forming a robust lattice-like
structure. These developmentally regulated structures are maintained in the adult CNS and enhance synaptic stability. After injury, however, CSPGs and tenascins contribute to the structure of the inhibitory glial scar, which actively prevents axonal regeneration. Myelin sheaths and mature adult oligodendrocytes, despite their important role in signal conduction in mature
CNS axons, contribute to the inhibitory environment existing after injury. As such, unlike the peripheral nervous system, the CNS is unable to revert to a “developmental state” to aid neuronal repair. Modulation of these external factors, however, has been shown to promote growth, regeneration, and functional plasticity after injury. This review will highlight some of the factors that contribute to or prevent plasticity, sprouting, and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 6 February 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 18 April 2018
Published date: 18 April 2018
Keywords: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, extracellular matrix, myelin, perineuronal net, spinal cord injury, tenascin

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 420004
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/420004
PURE UUID: 49eba065-3b49-4e00-ae17-14e27fc1d80f
ORCID for Melissa R. Andrews: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5960-5619

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Date deposited: 25 Apr 2018 16:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 03:09

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Contributors

Author: Shmma Quraishe
Author: Lindsey Forbes

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