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The prioritization of symptom beliefs over illness beliefs: the development and validation of the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People

The prioritization of symptom beliefs over illness beliefs: the development and validation of the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People
The prioritization of symptom beliefs over illness beliefs: the development and validation of the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People
Objectives: to investigate the suitability of the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for use with adolescents with a long-term pain condition and to validate a new questionnaire for use with this age group.

Design: a three-phase mixed-methods study.

Methods: phase 1 comprised in-depth qualitative analyses of audio-recorded cognitive interviews with 20 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who were answering IPQ-R items. Transcripts were coded using framework analysis. A content analysis of their intended responses to individual items was also conducted. In Phase 2, a new questionnaire was developed and its linguistic and face validity were assessed with 18 adolescents without long-term conditions. In Phase 3, the construct validity of the new questionnaire was assessed with 240 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A subset of 43 adolescents completed the questionnaire a second time to assess test-retest reliability. All participants were aged 11-16 years.

Results: participants described both conceptual and response format difficulties when answering IPQ-R items. In response, the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People (PPQ-YP) was designed which incorporated significant modifications to both wording and response formats when compared with the IPQ-R. A principal component analysis of the PPQ-YP identified ten constructs in the new questionnaire. Emotional representations were separated into two constructs, responsive and anticipatory emotions. The PPQ-YP showed high test-retest reliability.

Conclusions: symptom beliefs appear to be more salient to adolescents with a long-term pain condition than beliefs about the illness as a whole. A new questionnaire to assess pain beliefs of adolescents was designed. Further validation work may be needed to assess its suitability for use with other pain conditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Versions of the adult Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) have been adapted for adolescents and children by changing item wording; however, research to assess the degree to which the underlying IPQ-R constructs are relevant to adolescents with a long-term condition had not been performed. What the present study adds? In adolescents, beliefs about symptoms of their condition are more salient than beliefs about the illness as a whole. Question response formats for children and young people need to take account of age-specific abilities. A new questionnaire has been designed for adolescents with pain. It is theoretically congruent with the CS-SRM.
1359-107X
68-87
Ghio, Daniela
68e87380-d790-4f20-b24d-d3ac0ca5765d
Thomson, Wendy
137a22b9-79fc-4689-bc21-a7c2901cd8d7
Calam, Rachel
b03dd012-84cc-4b73-bfa1-32a0dded765a
Ulph, Fiona
da85ea0e-7cc4-4085-b739-8cf5324cf2af
Baildam, Eileen M.
817a8e5a-89fa-4f63-8edb-1dc6d6c86ec2
Ghio, Daniela
68e87380-d790-4f20-b24d-d3ac0ca5765d
Thomson, Wendy
137a22b9-79fc-4689-bc21-a7c2901cd8d7
Calam, Rachel
b03dd012-84cc-4b73-bfa1-32a0dded765a
Ulph, Fiona
da85ea0e-7cc4-4085-b739-8cf5324cf2af
Baildam, Eileen M.
817a8e5a-89fa-4f63-8edb-1dc6d6c86ec2

Ghio, Daniela, Thomson, Wendy, Calam, Rachel, Ulph, Fiona and Baildam, Eileen M. (2018) The prioritization of symptom beliefs over illness beliefs: the development and validation of the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People. British Journal of Health Psychology, 23 (1), 68-87. (doi:10.1111/bjhp.12275).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Objectives: to investigate the suitability of the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for use with adolescents with a long-term pain condition and to validate a new questionnaire for use with this age group.

Design: a three-phase mixed-methods study.

Methods: phase 1 comprised in-depth qualitative analyses of audio-recorded cognitive interviews with 20 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who were answering IPQ-R items. Transcripts were coded using framework analysis. A content analysis of their intended responses to individual items was also conducted. In Phase 2, a new questionnaire was developed and its linguistic and face validity were assessed with 18 adolescents without long-term conditions. In Phase 3, the construct validity of the new questionnaire was assessed with 240 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A subset of 43 adolescents completed the questionnaire a second time to assess test-retest reliability. All participants were aged 11-16 years.

Results: participants described both conceptual and response format difficulties when answering IPQ-R items. In response, the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People (PPQ-YP) was designed which incorporated significant modifications to both wording and response formats when compared with the IPQ-R. A principal component analysis of the PPQ-YP identified ten constructs in the new questionnaire. Emotional representations were separated into two constructs, responsive and anticipatory emotions. The PPQ-YP showed high test-retest reliability.

Conclusions: symptom beliefs appear to be more salient to adolescents with a long-term pain condition than beliefs about the illness as a whole. A new questionnaire to assess pain beliefs of adolescents was designed. Further validation work may be needed to assess its suitability for use with other pain conditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Versions of the adult Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) have been adapted for adolescents and children by changing item wording; however, research to assess the degree to which the underlying IPQ-R constructs are relevant to adolescents with a long-term condition had not been performed. What the present study adds? In adolescents, beliefs about symptoms of their condition are more salient than beliefs about the illness as a whole. Question response formats for children and young people need to take account of age-specific abilities. A new questionnaire has been designed for adolescents with pain. It is theoretically congruent with the CS-SRM.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 9 October 2017
Published date: February 2018

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Local EPrints ID: 420572
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/420572
ISSN: 1359-107X
PURE UUID: ac773296-68ee-4178-9d76-400c63c28aee

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Date deposited: 10 May 2018 16:30
Last modified: 16 Dec 2019 18:16

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