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GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission concept

GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission concept
GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission concept
The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg system (G-TERN) was proposed in response to ESA's Earth Explorer 9 revised call by a team of 33 multi-disciplinary scientists. The primary objective of the mission is to quantify at high spatio-temporal resolution crucial characteristics, processes and interactions between sea ice, and other Earth system components in order to advance the understanding and prediction of climate change and its impacts on the environment and society. The objective is articulated through three key questions. 1) In a rapidly changing Arctic regime and under the resilient Antarctic sea ice trend, how will highly dynamic forcings and couplings between the various components of the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere modify or influence the processes governing the characteristics of the sea ice cover (ice production, growth, deformation, and melt)? 2) What are the impacts of extreme events and feedback mechanisms on sea ice evolution? 3) What are the effects of the cryosphere behaviors, either rapidly changing or resiliently stable, on the global oceanic and atmospheric circulation and mid-latitude extreme events? To contribute answering these questions, G-TERN will measure key parameters of the sea ice, the oceans, and the atmosphere with frequent and dense coverage over polar areas, becoming a “dynamic mapper”of the ice conditions, the ice production, and the loss in multiple time and space scales, and surrounding environment. Over polar areas, the G-TERN will measure sea ice surface elevation (<;10 cm precision), roughness, and polarimetry aspects at 30-km resolution and 3-days full coverage. G-TERN will implement the interferometric GNSS reflectometry concept, from a single satellite in near-polar orbit with capability for 12 simultaneous observations. Unlike currently orbiting GNSS reflectometry missions, the G-TERN uses the full GNSS available bandwidth to improve its ranging measurements. The lifetime would be 2025-2030 or optimally 2025-2035, covering key stages of the transition toward a nearly ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. This paper describes the mission objectives, it reviews its measurement techniques, summarizes the suggested implementation, and finally, it estimates the expected performance.
2169-3536
13980-14018
Cardellach, Estel
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Chapron, Bertrand
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Fabra, Fran
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Flato, Greg
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Gabarro, Carolina
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Gommenginger, Christine
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Haas, Christian
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Healy, Sean
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Healy, Sean
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Rius, Antonio
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Semmling, Maximilian
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Shum, C.K.
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Steiner, Andrea K.
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Tailhades, Sebastien
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Vilaseca, Roger
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Zuffada, Cinzia
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Cardellach, Estel, Wickert, Jens, Baggen, Rens, Benito, Javier, Camps, Adriano, Catarino, Nuno, Chapron, Bertrand, Dielacher, Andreas, Fabra, Fran, Flato, Greg, Fragner, Heinrich, Gabarro, Carolina, Gommenginger, Christine, Haas, Christian, Healy, Sean, Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel, Hoeg, Per, Jaggi, Adrian, Kainulainen, Juha, Khan, Shfaqat Abbas, Lemke, Norbert M.K., Li, Weiqiang, Nghiem, Son V., Pierdicca, Nazzareno, Portabella, Marcos, Rautiainen, Kimmo, Rius, Antonio, Sasgen, Ingo, Semmling, Maximilian, Shum, C.K., Soulat, Francois, Steiner, Andrea K., Tailhades, Sebastien, Thomas, Maik, Vilaseca, Roger and Zuffada, Cinzia (2018) GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission concept. IEEE Access, 6, 13980-14018. (doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2814072).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg system (G-TERN) was proposed in response to ESA's Earth Explorer 9 revised call by a team of 33 multi-disciplinary scientists. The primary objective of the mission is to quantify at high spatio-temporal resolution crucial characteristics, processes and interactions between sea ice, and other Earth system components in order to advance the understanding and prediction of climate change and its impacts on the environment and society. The objective is articulated through three key questions. 1) In a rapidly changing Arctic regime and under the resilient Antarctic sea ice trend, how will highly dynamic forcings and couplings between the various components of the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere modify or influence the processes governing the characteristics of the sea ice cover (ice production, growth, deformation, and melt)? 2) What are the impacts of extreme events and feedback mechanisms on sea ice evolution? 3) What are the effects of the cryosphere behaviors, either rapidly changing or resiliently stable, on the global oceanic and atmospheric circulation and mid-latitude extreme events? To contribute answering these questions, G-TERN will measure key parameters of the sea ice, the oceans, and the atmosphere with frequent and dense coverage over polar areas, becoming a “dynamic mapper”of the ice conditions, the ice production, and the loss in multiple time and space scales, and surrounding environment. Over polar areas, the G-TERN will measure sea ice surface elevation (<;10 cm precision), roughness, and polarimetry aspects at 30-km resolution and 3-days full coverage. G-TERN will implement the interferometric GNSS reflectometry concept, from a single satellite in near-polar orbit with capability for 12 simultaneous observations. Unlike currently orbiting GNSS reflectometry missions, the G-TERN uses the full GNSS available bandwidth to improve its ranging measurements. The lifetime would be 2025-2030 or optimally 2025-2035, covering key stages of the transition toward a nearly ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. This paper describes the mission objectives, it reviews its measurement techniques, summarizes the suggested implementation, and finally, it estimates the expected performance.

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Accepted/In Press date: 4 February 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 9 March 2018
Published date: 28 March 2018

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Local EPrints ID: 420640
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/420640
ISSN: 2169-3536
PURE UUID: 8d59d157-bb34-4df7-b188-571c6e8761ee

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Date deposited: 11 May 2018 16:30
Last modified: 16 Dec 2019 18:14

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Contributors

Author: Estel Cardellach
Author: Jens Wickert
Author: Rens Baggen
Author: Javier Benito
Author: Adriano Camps
Author: Nuno Catarino
Author: Bertrand Chapron
Author: Andreas Dielacher
Author: Fran Fabra
Author: Greg Flato
Author: Heinrich Fragner
Author: Carolina Gabarro
Author: Christine Gommenginger
Author: Christian Haas
Author: Sean Healy
Author: Manuel Hernandez-Pajares
Author: Per Hoeg
Author: Adrian Jaggi
Author: Juha Kainulainen
Author: Shfaqat Abbas Khan
Author: Norbert M.K. Lemke
Author: Weiqiang Li
Author: Son V. Nghiem
Author: Nazzareno Pierdicca
Author: Marcos Portabella
Author: Kimmo Rautiainen
Author: Antonio Rius
Author: Ingo Sasgen
Author: Maximilian Semmling
Author: C.K. Shum
Author: Francois Soulat
Author: Andrea K. Steiner
Author: Sebastien Tailhades
Author: Maik Thomas
Author: Roger Vilaseca
Author: Cinzia Zuffada

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