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Developments in electrode design: Structure, decoration and applications of electrodes for electrochemical technology

Developments in electrode design: Structure, decoration and applications of electrodes for electrochemical technology
Developments in electrode design: Structure, decoration and applications of electrodes for electrochemical technology
The diversity of cell geometries and their use for electrochemical processing and energy conversion are concisely reviewed, updating earlier treatments, with an emphasis on an engineering approach to electrode design. Electrode size varies from several cm2 in the laboratory to a total of hundreds of m2 at industrial plant scale and currents can range from several nA at laboratory through many 100 kA in industry. Electrode materials include metals, conductive ceramics and polymers as well as polymer- metal or ceramic-metal composites. Area, electrocatalytic activity and functionality can be tailored by selecting an appropriate support structure-coating combination. The core structure of porous supports can be a foam, mesh or particulate bed while the surface can be enhanced by many techniques. Inspiration for electrode design can come from many sources, including biomimetics and technology transfer. Important aspects of electrodes include manufacture, electrochemical activity, active area, the possibilities of 3D and nanostructured surfaces, decoration and functionalisation, in addition to reasonable cost and adequate lifetime. The diversity of electrodes is illustrated by examples from the author’s laboratory in the fields of inorganic and organic synthesis, environmental remediation of wastewaters, surface finishing of materials and energy storage/conversion. A forward look is made to potential future developments in electrochemical technology.
electrochemical engineering, electrode area, electrode geometry, electrode materials, electrodeposition, energy storage, electrochemical flow cell, porous electrode, electrosynthesis, metal recovery, environmental remediation FM01-LC mass transport, mass transport, recycling, drug delivery, 3D printing, manufacture, electrode design, electrochemical oxidation, electrochemical capacitors, redox flow batteries, fuel cell, pilot system, scale up, scaleability, industrial electrochemistry
0268-2575
3073–3090
Walsh, Frank C.
309528e7-062e-439b-af40-9309bc91efb2
Arenas Martinez, Luis Fernando
6e7e3d10-2aab-4fc3-a6d4-63a6614d0403
Ponce de Leon, Carlos
508a312e-75ff-4bcb-9151-dacc424d755c
Walsh, Frank C.
309528e7-062e-439b-af40-9309bc91efb2
Arenas Martinez, Luis Fernando
6e7e3d10-2aab-4fc3-a6d4-63a6614d0403
Ponce de Leon, Carlos
508a312e-75ff-4bcb-9151-dacc424d755c

Walsh, Frank C., Arenas Martinez, Luis Fernando and Ponce de Leon, Carlos (2018) Developments in electrode design: Structure, decoration and applications of electrodes for electrochemical technology. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 93, 3073–3090. (doi:10.1002/jctb.5706).

Record type: Review

Abstract

The diversity of cell geometries and their use for electrochemical processing and energy conversion are concisely reviewed, updating earlier treatments, with an emphasis on an engineering approach to electrode design. Electrode size varies from several cm2 in the laboratory to a total of hundreds of m2 at industrial plant scale and currents can range from several nA at laboratory through many 100 kA in industry. Electrode materials include metals, conductive ceramics and polymers as well as polymer- metal or ceramic-metal composites. Area, electrocatalytic activity and functionality can be tailored by selecting an appropriate support structure-coating combination. The core structure of porous supports can be a foam, mesh or particulate bed while the surface can be enhanced by many techniques. Inspiration for electrode design can come from many sources, including biomimetics and technology transfer. Important aspects of electrodes include manufacture, electrochemical activity, active area, the possibilities of 3D and nanostructured surfaces, decoration and functionalisation, in addition to reasonable cost and adequate lifetime. The diversity of electrodes is illustrated by examples from the author’s laboratory in the fields of inorganic and organic synthesis, environmental remediation of wastewaters, surface finishing of materials and energy storage/conversion. A forward look is made to potential future developments in electrochemical technology.

Text
Castner Paper revised script 18 May 2018 for PURE - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 15 May 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 4 June 2018
Published date: November 2018
Keywords: electrochemical engineering, electrode area, electrode geometry, electrode materials, electrodeposition, energy storage, electrochemical flow cell, porous electrode, electrosynthesis, metal recovery, environmental remediation FM01-LC mass transport, mass transport, recycling, drug delivery, 3D printing, manufacture, electrode design, electrochemical oxidation, electrochemical capacitors, redox flow batteries, fuel cell, pilot system, scale up, scaleability, industrial electrochemistry

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 420996
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/420996
ISSN: 0268-2575
PURE UUID: d2f75ecb-1ae1-4cdb-b5d7-8bc836cbd8c7
ORCID for Carlos Ponce de Leon: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1907-5913

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 21 May 2018 16:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 06:40

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