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Linkages between the genesis and resource potential of ferromanganese deposits in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans

Linkages between the genesis and resource potential of ferromanganese deposits in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans
Linkages between the genesis and resource potential of ferromanganese deposits in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans

In addition to iron and manganese, deep sea ferromanganese deposits, including nodules and crusts, contain significant amounts of economically interesting metals, such as cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and rare Earth elements and yttrium (REY). Some of these metals are essential in the development of emerging and new-generation green technologies. However, the resource potential of these deposits is variable, and likely related to environmental conditions that prevail as they form. To better assess the environmental controls on the resource potential of ferromanganese deposits, we have undertaken a detailed study of the chemical composition of ferromanganese nodules and one crust sample from different oceanic regions. Textural and chemical characteristics of nodules from the North Atlantic and a crust from the South Pacific suggest that they acquire metals from a hydrogenous source. These deposits are potentially an economically important source of Co and the REY. On the other hand, nodules from the Pacific Ocean represent a marginal resource of these metals, due to their relatively fast growth rate caused by diagenetic precipitation. By contrast, they have relatively high concentrations of Ni and Cu. A nodule from the Arctic Ocean is characterised by the presence of significant quantities of detrital silicate material, which significantly reduces their metal resource.

Arctic nodules, Deep sea mining, Diagenesis, Ferromanganese crusts, Polymetallic nodules
0009-8558
1-31
Menendez, Amaya
378704ee-93ff-478f-ba13-83177846dd9c
James, Rachael
79aa1d5c-675d-4ba3-85be-fb20798c02f4
Shulga, Natalia
d1d44848-abe0-441c-8489-491bb6be8c78
Connelly, Doug
d49131bb-af38-4768-9953-7ae0b43e33c8
Roberts, Steve
01046f18-42c2-4a00-ac7a-31bc498030e6
Menendez, Amaya
378704ee-93ff-478f-ba13-83177846dd9c
James, Rachael
79aa1d5c-675d-4ba3-85be-fb20798c02f4
Shulga, Natalia
d1d44848-abe0-441c-8489-491bb6be8c78
Connelly, Doug
d49131bb-af38-4768-9953-7ae0b43e33c8
Roberts, Steve
01046f18-42c2-4a00-ac7a-31bc498030e6

Menendez, Amaya, James, Rachael, Shulga, Natalia, Connelly, Doug and Roberts, Steve (2018) Linkages between the genesis and resource potential of ferromanganese deposits in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans. Clay Minerals, 8 (5), 1-31, [197]. (doi:10.3390/min8050197).

Record type: Article

Abstract

In addition to iron and manganese, deep sea ferromanganese deposits, including nodules and crusts, contain significant amounts of economically interesting metals, such as cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and rare Earth elements and yttrium (REY). Some of these metals are essential in the development of emerging and new-generation green technologies. However, the resource potential of these deposits is variable, and likely related to environmental conditions that prevail as they form. To better assess the environmental controls on the resource potential of ferromanganese deposits, we have undertaken a detailed study of the chemical composition of ferromanganese nodules and one crust sample from different oceanic regions. Textural and chemical characteristics of nodules from the North Atlantic and a crust from the South Pacific suggest that they acquire metals from a hydrogenous source. These deposits are potentially an economically important source of Co and the REY. On the other hand, nodules from the Pacific Ocean represent a marginal resource of these metals, due to their relatively fast growth rate caused by diagenetic precipitation. By contrast, they have relatively high concentrations of Ni and Cu. A nodule from the Arctic Ocean is characterised by the presence of significant quantities of detrital silicate material, which significantly reduces their metal resource.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 3 May 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 5 May 2018
Published date: 2018
Keywords: Arctic nodules, Deep sea mining, Diagenesis, Ferromanganese crusts, Polymetallic nodules

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 421467
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/421467
ISSN: 0009-8558
PURE UUID: b833bd48-b4a6-4f7a-8002-7df3222bdaca

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Date deposited: 13 Jun 2018 16:30
Last modified: 16 Dec 2019 18:09

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Contributors

Author: Amaya Menendez
Author: Rachael James
Author: Natalia Shulga
Author: Doug Connelly
Author: Steve Roberts

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